Genetic Engineering In Humans

June 28, 2015 By: stoommica Category: human Genetic Engineering

Human genetic engineering is one of the most controversial aspects of a science, which is itself highly controversial, and it is still very much in its infancy. There have been a few isolated cases where an illness has been successfully cured by the use of genetic therapy, but there have also been other cases where patients have contracted diseases such as leukemia through experimentation with this type of therapy. At this stage it is impossible to say exactly what the future will hold, or exactly what the consequences of these developments will be.

So far, the only successes which the method has are in treating conditions relating to the human immune system. This is an obvious application of the technology, as the condition is caused purely by genetic factors. By replacing a gene which gives the patient a proclivity towards the disease with a healthy one a cure can be effected. This is more than just theory, as the numbers of cases where this has been successfully carried out is now into double figures, and is constantly increasing. The challenge lies in overcoming the potentially catastrophic side effects which can occur if the treatment does not work.

One of the most controversial of all applications of this technology is in allowing infertile mothers to conceive. This is done by using the eggs from a different mother, leaving the child with the genetic blueprint inherited from three people. This will then be passed on through future generations, leading to untold potential complications. It is still far too early to judge the potential consequences of the use of this type of genetic technology, but if there are any negative side effects they are likely to be far reaching and extremely damaging.

There have been many arguments put forward concerning human genetic engineering, some strongly in favor and some equally strongly against. The potential is there for diseases caused by genetics to be eliminated completely, and this is there area in which fewest dissenting voices will be heard. The use of genetics purely to overcome fertility is far more controversial, especially when you consider the permanent effect that this has on all future generations of that family. There are also many dissenters against the possibility of parents deciding features of their children using an advanced form of this technology, which cannot be used yet but which may be perfectly possible in the future.

If this technology is left unchecked it will definitely have far reaching consequences. There is no doubt that wealthy families would take advantage of such technology to try to give their children every advantage in their future life, and there could be several possible outcomes of this. One would be a rise in productivity and creativity which would penetrate through society, raising the standard of society for everyone and creating more opportunities. It is also possible that poor families who could not afford this technology would be left even further adrift, leading to sharp increases in crime rates, social disorder, and economic chaos.

Even though strong opinions are held on both sides of the argument, the truth is that it is far too early to know for sure exactly what is involved with human genetic engineering. There are some philosophical and moral arguments which will prove exceedingly difficult to resolve one way or another, but there are potential consequences which cannot possibly be known until more research has been carried out. The arguments over this technology are certain to rage for a great many years to come, and it is unlikely there will ever be universal agreement on human genetic engineering.

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Genetic Engineering In Humans

Human Genetics Alert – Human Genetic Engineering resources

June 24, 2015 By: Walid Yassin Category: human Genetic Engineering

1. Is human genetic engineering safe and effective?

With present techniques it is clearly unsafe: the techniques of inserting genes can disrupt other genes, with harmful consequences for the person and all his/her descendants. We do not know enough about how gene work to ensure that an inserted gene will work as desired. Future generations cannot consent to such risks. The chance that interventions will be effective is unknown. However, the technologies are improving constantly and may make human genetic engineering (HGE) feasible within five years.

No, it is not. Advocates argue that it is a general solution to the problem of genetic diseases and is superior to somatic gene therapy, since it could permanently eliminate the risk of inherited disease within a family. However, there are only a few very rare cases where HGE is the only option for producing a healthy child. Couples can choose not to have children, to adopt a child, or to use donor eggs or sperm. If it is consistent with their values, they can also use prenatal and pre-implantation genetic testing to avoid genetic disease and have a child that is 100% genetically related. Given this, it is clear that the real market for HGE is in ‘enhancement’ of appearance, height, athletic ability, intelligence, etc.

No, it is not, although Lee Silver and others like him very much want you to believe that it is. In a democratic society people agree on what rules they wish to live under. By 1998 twenty-seven industrial democracies had agreed to ban human cloning and germ line manipulation. In the U.S., the state of Michigan has made all forms of human cloning illegal. There is no reason we cannot choose to forgo these technologies, both domestically and as part of a global compact. It is often said that banning the use of a technology will not prevent someone from developing it elsewhere. This may be true, although the number of people competent to develop cloning and human genetic engineering is small. But even though the technology may be developed, we do not have to permit its use to become respectable and widespread.

No, we have the right to choose the science that we want and to define our own vision of progress. We should reject science which is not in the public interest. Proscribing the most dangerous techno-eugenic applications will allow us to proceed with greater confidence in developing the many potentially beneficial uses of genetic research for human society.

People do have the right to have children if they are biologically capable, but they do not have any ‘right’ to use cloning, or genetic engineering. Rights don’t exist in a vacuum; they are socially negotiated within a context of fundamental values. The question of access to particular technologies is a matter of public policy and depends on the social consequences of allowing that access. For example, people are not allowed access to nuclear technology, or dangerous pathogens and drugs, simply because they have the money to pay for them.

Traditionally, we see human beings as inviolable, and as endowed with rights: they must be accepted as they are. Human genetic engineering overthrows that basic conception, degrading human subjects into objects, to be designed according parents’ whim. Accepting such a change would have consequences both for individual humans and for society at large which we can barely imagine. Obvious consequences would be a disruption of parents’ unconditional love for children. Cloning and HGE represent an unprecedented intent to determine and control a child’s life trajectory: for the child, it would undermine their sense of free will and of their achievements. These concerns are what many people mean when they say that we should not play God with our children.

The social consequences of the use of cloning and HGE in our society would be disastrous. Parents would tend to engineer children to conform to social norms, with regard to physical ability, appearance and aptitudes, even though many of those social norms are inherently oppressive. For example, disabled people have often expressed fears that free-market eugenics would reduce society’s tolerance for those genetic impairments. If genes pre-disposing people to homosexuality are discovered, it is certain that many people would attempt to engineer these out of their offspring. A free-market techno-eugenics could also easily have the disastrous consequences spelled out in Lee Silver’s Re-making Eden. Since access to such expensive technology would be on the basis of ability to pay, we could see the emergence of biologically as well as financially advantaged ruling elites.

The environmental movement has recognised how, in Western societies over the last few hundred years, humans have tried to control and dominate nature, with the resultant environmental crisis which we currently face. Genetic engineering of plants and animals gives us the power to dominate nature in a new and more powerful way than ever before, which is why it has caused so much concern in environmental movements. Techno-eugenics extends the drive to control nature to the nature of human beings, threatening ultimately to make the human species, like other species, the object of the manipulative control of technocratic elites. It is obvious that if we cannot prevent this, we have little chance of winning the struggle to protect the environment. The environmental movement is the main guardian of the non-exploitative vision of the relation between humans and the rest of nature. Realising that such a relationship may soon be imposed upon ourselves, and our children, the environmental movement must take the lead in alerting society to the danger that it faces.

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Human Genetics Alert – Human Genetic Engineering resources

Anti-aging medicine – National Center for Biotechnology …

June 24, 2015 By: stoommica Category: Anti-Aging Medicine

Today’s healthcare challenges and tomorrow’s opportunity can only be met by those who search out deeper explanations of the body processes that generate health and disease. Life expectancy has increased due to advances in medical science. However it has come with little progress towards quality of life or the length of disease-free years in the majority of population.

Most researchers believe that maximum life span in human is slightly over 110 years. Beyond that age, the estimates and speculation enter the realms of science fiction.

Old age is the most unexpected of all things that happens to man. –

Leon Trotsky

Aging has been a fact of life ever since it was created. Human beings go through various phases of life from being child to youth to being adult with youth being the best part of life from health point of view. Good health, strong muscles, an efficient immune system, a sharp memory and a healthy brain are characteristic of ideal youth. The hormones work at their peak capacity during the youth years.

Anti-Aging medicine aims to maintain or achieve this irrespective of chronological age i.e. to stay healthy and biologically efficient.

The prestigious scientific journal, Biogerontology, defines aging as: The progressive failing ability of the body’s own intrinsic and genetic powers to defend, maintain and repair itself in order to keep working efficiently.

We are now living in the information age. Medical knowledge is increasing at an amazing rate-doubling every three years. This doubling rate of information is progressively decreasing. The world is changing and so is the way we view our health and well being as we age.

Aging has been believed to be inherent, universal, progressive natural phenomenon. It is detrimental with no benefits except perhaps wisdom. But now there is a paradigm shift in looking at the aging process based on firmly documented evidence in medical and scientific literature. If we plot the health in y-axis and the number of years in x-axis, the curve of life is like a triangle which is skewed with its apex at 25-30 years. Anti-aging helps to make it rectangle.

Many natural aging mechanisms frequently result in actual diseases. From this we can conclude that fighting an aging process may well bring about an improvement of an age related illness.

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Anti-aging medicine – National Center for Biotechnology …

agnosticism | Britannica.com

June 20, 2015 By: painlord2k Category: Agnosticism

agnosticism,(from Greek agnstos, unknowable), strictly speaking, the doctrine that humans cannot know of the existence of anything beyond the phenomena of their experience. The term has come to be equated in popular parlance with skepticism about religious questions in general and in particular with the rejection of traditional Christian beliefs under the impact of modern scientific thought.

The word agnosticism was first publicly coined in 1869 at a meeting of the Metaphysical Society in London by T.H. Huxley, a British biologist and champion of the Darwinian theory of evolution. He coined it as a suitable label for his own position. It came into my head as suggestively antithetical to the Gnostic of Church history who professed to know so much about the very things of which I was ignorant.

Huxleys statement brings out both the fact that agnosticism has something to do with not knowing, and that this not knowing refers particularly to the sphere of religious doctrine. Etymology, however, and now common usage, do permit less limited uses of the term. The Soviet leader Lenin, for instance, in his Materialism and Empirio-Criticism (1908), distinguished the extremes of true Materialism on the one hand and the bold Idealism of George Berkeley, an 18th-century Idealist, on the other. He recognized as attempted halfway houses between them the agnosticisms of the Scottish Skeptic David Hume and the great German critical philosopher Immanuel Kantagnosticisms that here consisted in their contentions about the unknowability of the nature, or even the existence, of things-in-themselves (realities beyond appearances).

The essence of Huxleys agnosticismand his statement, as the inventor of the term, must be peculiarly authoritativewas not a profession of total ignorance, nor even of total ignorance within one special but very large sphere; rather, he insisted, it was not a creed but a method, the essence of which lies in the rigorous application of a single principle, viz., to follow reason as far as it can take you; but then, when you have established as much as you can, frankly and honestly to recognize the limits of your knowledge. It is the same principle as that later proclaimed in an essay on The Ethics of Belief (1876) by the British mathematician and philosopher of science W.K. Clifford: It is wrong always, everywhere and for everyone to believe anything upon insufficient evidence. Applied by Huxley to fundamental Christian claims, this principle yields characteristically skeptical conclusions: speaking, for example, of the Apocrypha (ancient scriptural writings excluded from the biblical canon), he wrote: One may suspect that a little more critical discrimination would have enlarged the Apocrypha not inconsiderably. In the same spirit, Sir Leslie Stephen, 19th-century literary critic and historian of thought, in An Agnostics Apology, and Other Essays (1893), reproached those who pretended to delineate the nature of God Almighty with an accuracy from which modest naturalists would shrink in describing the genesis of a black beetle.

Agnosticism in its primary reference is commonly contrasted with atheism thus: The Atheist asserts that there is no God, whereas the Agnostic maintains only that he does not know. This distinction, however, is in two respects misleading: first, Huxley himself certainly rejected as outright falserather than as not known to be true or falsemany widely popular views about God, his providence, and mans posthumous destiny; and second, if this were the crucial distinction, agnosticism would for almost all practical purposes be the same as atheism. It was indeed on this misunderstanding that Huxley and his associates were attacked both by enthusiastic Christian polemicists and by Friedrich Engels, the co-worker of Karl Marx, as shame-faced atheists, a description that is perfectly applicable to many of those who nowadays adopt the more comfortable label.

Agnosticism, moreover, is not the same as Skepticism, which, in the comprehensive and classical form epitomized by the ancient Greek Skeptic Sextus Empiricus (2nd and 3rd centuries ad), confidently challenges not merely religious or metaphysical knowledge but all knowledge claims that venture beyond immediate experience. Agnosticism is, as Skepticism surely could not be, compatible with the approach of Positivism, which emphasizes the achievements and possibilities of natural and social sciencethough most agnostics, including Huxley, have nonetheless harboured reserves about the more authoritarian and eccentric features of the system of Auguste Comte, the 19th-century founder of Positivism.

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agnosticism | Britannica.com

anatomy | biology | Britannica.com

June 20, 2015 By: lokkol Category: Anatomy

anatomy,a field in the biological sciences concerned with the identification and description of the body structures of living things. Gross anatomy involves the study of major body structures by dissection and observation and in its narrowest sense is concerned only with the human body. Gross anatomy customarily refers to the study of those body structures large enough to be examined without the help of magnifying devices, while microscopic anatomy is concerned with the study of structural units small enough to be seen only with a light microscope. Dissection is basic to all anatomical research. The earliest record of its use was made by the Greeks, and Theophrastus called dissection anatomy, from ana temnein, meaning to cut up.

Comparative anatomy, the other major subdivision of the field, compares similar body structures in different species of animals in order to understand the adaptive changes they have undergone in the course of evolution. (See comparative anatomy.)

This ancient discipline reached its culmination between 1500 and 1850, by which time its subject matter was firmly established. None of the worlds oldest civilizations dissected a human body, which most people regarded with superstitious awe and associated with the spirit of the departed soul. Beliefs in life after death and a disquieting uncertainty concerning the possibility of bodily resurrection further inhibited systematic study. Nevertheless, knowledge of the body was acquired by treating wounds, aiding in childbirth, and setting broken limbs. The field remained speculative rather than descriptive, though, until the achievements of the Alexandrian medical school and its foremost figure, the Greek Herophilus (fl. 300 bc), who dissected human cadavers and thus gave anatomy a considerable factual basis for the first time. Herophilus made many important discoveries and was followed by his younger contemporary Erasistratus, who is sometimes regarded as the founder of physiology. In the 2nd century ad the Greek physician Galen assembled and arranged all the discoveries of the Greek anatomists, including with them his own concepts of physiology and his discoveries in experimental medicine. The many books Galen wrote became the unquestioned authority for anatomy and medicine in Europe because they were the only ancient Greek anatomical texts that survived the Dark Ages in the form of Arabic (and then Latin) translations.

Owing to church prohibitions against dissection, European medicine in the Middle Ages relied upon Galens mixture of fact and fancy rather than on direct observation for its anatomical knowledge, though some dissections were authorized for teaching purposes. In the early 16th century, the artist Leonardo da Vinci undertook his own dissections, and his beautiful and accurate anatomical drawings cleared the way for the Flemish physician Andreas Vesalius to restore the science of anatomy with his monumental De humani corporis fabrica libri septem (1543; The Seven Books on the Structure of the Human Body), which was the first comprehensive and illustrated textbook of anatomy. As a professor at the University of Padua, Vesalius encouraged younger scientists to accept traditional anatomy only after verifying it themselves, and this more critical and questioning attitude broke Galens authority and placed anatomy on a firm foundation of observed fact and demonstration.

From Vesalius exact descriptions of the skeleton, muscles, blood vessels, nervous system, and digestive tract, his successors in Padua progressed to studies of the digestive glands and the urinary and reproductive systems. Hieronymus Fabricius, Gabriello Fallopius, and Bartolomeo Eustachio were among the most important Italian anatomists, and their detailed studies led to fundamental progress in the related field of physiology. William Harveys discovery of the circulation of the blood, for instance, was based partly on Fabricius detailed descriptions of the venous valves.

The new application of magnifying glasses and compound microscopes to biological studies in the second half of the 17th century was the most important factor in the subsequent development of anatomical research. Primitive early microscopes enabled Marcello Malpighi to discover the system of tiny capillaries connecting the arterial and venous networks, Robert Hooke to first observe the small compartments in plants that he called cells, and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek to observe muscle fibres and spermatozoa. Thenceforth attention gradually shifted from the identification and understanding of bodily structures visible to the naked eye to those of microscopic size.

The use of the microscope in discovering minute, previously unknown features was pursued on a more systematic basis in the 18th century, but progress tended to be slow until technical improvements in the compound microscope itself, beginning in the 1830s with the gradual development of achromatic lenses, greatly increased that instruments resolving power. These technical advances enabled Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann to recognize in 183839 that the cell is the fundamental unit of organization in all living things. The need for thinner, more transparent tissue specimens for study under the light microscope stimulated the development of improved methods of dissection, notably machines called microtomes that can slice specimens into extremely thin sections. In order to better distinguish the detail in these sections, synthetic dyes were used to stain tissues with different colours. Thin sections and staining had become standard tools for microscopic anatomists by the late 19th century. The field of cytology, which is the study of cells, and that of histology, which is the study of tissue organization from the cellular level up, both arose in the 19th century with the data and techniques of microscopic anatomy as their basis.

In the 20th century anatomists tended to scrutinize tinier and tinier units of structure as new technologies enabled them to discern details far beyond the limits of resolution of light microscopes. These advances were made possible by the electron microscope, which stimulated an enormous amount of research on subcellular structures beginning in the 1950s and became the prime tool of anatomical research. About the same time, the use of X-ray diffraction for studying the structures of many types of molecules present in living things gave rise to the new subspecialty of molecular anatomy.

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Longevity of light bulbs and how to make them last longer …

June 15, 2015 By: BoicepSip Category: Longevity

Everybody would like to buy a light bulb which lasts at least as long as the box you bought it in claims it will. However, as I mentioned in the definite guide for declaration found on light bulb packages, the longevity of light bulbs is usually much shorter than it is declared on their package. In this article youre going to find out how you can try to make your light bulbs last longer without shifting to other type of lighting.

I decided to write about most commonly used types of light bulbs today: incandescent, CFL and LED light bulbs. An important fact is that there are many variations of light bulbs that are using the same technology, and their longevity as well as ways to prolong it will be generalized.

Among other factors, the lifetime of any lamp depends on operating voltage, manufacturing defects, exposure to voltage spikes, mechanical shock and vibrations, how often you turn the light on and off, and ambient operating temperature. Make sure to check the condition of your light fixtures and find a way (or a person) to check the wiring.

In cases of high voltage or a bad power provider, a silicon diode cap can be screwed over the base of the bulb to reduce the voltage passing through. By lowering voltage, they also lover the generated heat, however, they also reduce the light output to some extent.

Before jumping to the section you are interested in, you should also be advised to buy light bulbs from companies with stricter quality control and brands you trust in. In long term, the difference in price between alight bulb of quality and a cheap light bulb pays off when it comes to frequency of their replacement.

General Electric Company was the first to patent a method of making tungsten filaments for use in incandescent light bulbs back in 1906, and the method hasnt changed a great deal during that time. Although they do have the lowest initial cost, compared to CFLs and LED light bulbs, incandescent light bulbs have the shortest longevity and highest energy consumption for the same amount of lumens (light) they are able to emit. So, how to make them last longer?

As mentioned in article about declaration found on light bulb packages, most household bulbs which operate on higher voltage than declared lose around 60 percent of the declared life. That is why buying light bulbs with more volts (V) than it is proposed by standard in your country can prolong their operation. Another two factors which influence the longevity of incandescent light bulbs are temperature and vibrations.

Most incandescent bulbs have a tungsten filament which heats up as electricity passes through. The heat, which produces the light, makes the filament fragile and wears it off over time. This part will heat up faster as it has a higher resistance (P = I2R), thus causing further thinning of the already thinnest part. You should also enable the light bulb to dissipate the heat more easily and lower its exposure to cold temperatures.

The best way to counter this effect, and stick to usage of tungsten incandescent light bulbs, is to install a continuous (dial type) dimmer switch. By slowly turning on a cool light bulb, you prevent surges of electricity from rushing through the filament. Unlike some of the old dimmer switches, modern dimmers do lower energy consumption as well. Therefore, turning down the maximum amount of light to the amount you actually need makes your electricity bill lower, and your light bulb lifespan longer.

Incandescent light bulbs are also sensitive to vibrations that may come from slamming doors, machines, shocks or even noise. The solution to this problem is usage of vibration resistant fan bulbs or rough service light bulbs. These bulbs have an extra filament that reduces the vibrations. Unlike most standard incandescent bulbs which last anywhere between 700 and 1,000 hours, rough service light bulbs can withstand vibrations and can generally last 2 to 10 times longer.

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Longevity of light bulbs and how to make them last longer …

5 Things You Need to Know About Stem Cells in Skin Care …

June 13, 2015 By: Walid Yassin Category: Skin Stem Cells

courtesy of Daily Glow

Between anti-aging ingredients that are worshipped (retinol) to the ones that are obscure (bee venom), figuring out which ingredient will kick Father Times ass is enough to give you wrinkles. And now skin-care manufacturers have added another anti-aging contender: stem cells.

Medical researchers have long studied the ability of stem cells, which can regenerate and form almost any cell type in the body, to treat numerous chronic diseases. Now skin-care brands like Lifeline and Origins are hoping that stem cells can deliver the powerful results in the cosmetics industry that they have in medicine. But are they worth the hype? Here are five facts you should know about stem cells before you spend a dime.

1. Skin care contains either plant or human stem cells. In the case of Lifeline, human stem cells are derived from unfertilized eggs (so, youre not putting human embryo on your face).

2. Plant and human cells actually operate in comparable ways. There are similarities in the way stem cells function in both plants and animals to sustain growth and repair tissues, says Jeanette Jacknin, MD, a dermatologist in San Diego and author of Smart Medicine for Your Skin. To perform their functions, stem cells, unlike other cells, are able to produce copies of themselves over long periods of time.

3. Stem cells contain two key components: growth factors, which play a role in cell division, the growth of new cells, and the production of collagen and elastin; and proteins, which regulate that stem-cell division. When applied to your skin, these two components help firm wrinkles and slow the development of new lines.

4. Theres no definitive call on how well plant stem cells work. While theres evidence that human stem cells, when harnessed with growth factors, stimulate epidermal stem cells to thicken the skin, which leads to tightening, theres no scientific evidence that plant-stem-cell growth factors work in the same way, says Ronald L. Moy, MD, cosmetic and plastic surgeon in Los Angeles and former president of the American Academy of Dermatology. After all, how could a plant cell have any effect on human skin? But plant stem cells still have benefits. Products that contain antioxidant-rich fruits or plants as a source still offer free-radical-fighting benefits.

5. The amount of stem cells in the product matters. Dont get suckered into spending a fortune simply because a product says stem-cell derived on the front label. Check the ingredient list on the back label to see how much of the active ingredients are in the product, Dr. Jacknin says. Stem cells should be listed first on the ingredient label; if theyre listed last, that indicates the product contains such a small percentage that the effect is likely to be minimal.

Tell us: Would you try stem cell skin care? Or are you weirded out by it?

xx, The FabFitFun Team

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5 Things You Need to Know About Stem Cells in Skin Care …

Ulcer (dermatology) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

June 13, 2015 By: Walid Yassin Category: Dermatology

An ulcer is a sore on the skin or a mucous membrane, accompanied by the disintegration of tissue. Ulcers can result in complete loss of the epidermis and often portions of the dermis and even subcutaneous fat. Ulcers are most common on the skin of the lower extremities and in the gastrointestinal tract. An ulcer that appears on the skin is often visible as an inflamed tissue with an area of reddened skin. A skin ulcer is often visible in the event of exposure to heat or cold, irritation, or a problem with blood circulation. They can also be caused due to a lack of mobility, which causes prolonged pressure on the tissues. This stress in the blood circulation is transformed to a skin ulcer, commonly known as bedsores or decubitus ulcers.[1] Ulcers often become infected, and pus forms.

Skin ulcers appear as open craters, often round, with layers of skin that have eroded. The skin around the ulcer may be red, swollen, and tender. Patients may feel pain on the skin around the ulcer, and fluid may ooze from the ulcer. In some cases, ulcers can bleed and, rarely, patients experience fever. Ulcers sometimes seem not to heal; healing, if it does occur, tends to be slow. Ulcers that heal within 12 weeks are usually classified as acute, and longer-lasting ones as chronic.

Ulcers develop in stages. In stage 1 the skin is red with soft underlying tissue. In the second stage the redness of the skin becomes more pronounced, swelling appears, and there may be some blisters and loss of outer skin layers. During the next stage, the skin may become necrotic down through the deep layers of skin, and the fat beneath the skin may become exposed and visible. In stage 4, deeper necrosis usually occurs, the fat underneath the skin is completely exposed, and the muscle may also become exposed. In the last two stages the sore may cause a deeper loss of fat and necrosis of the muscle; in severe cases it can extend down to bone level, destruction of the bone may begin, and there may be sepsis of joints.

Chronic ulcers may be painful. Most patients complain of constant pain at night and during the day. Chronic ulcer symptoms usually include increasing pain, friable granulation tissue, foul odour, and wound breakdown instead of healing.[2] Symptoms tend to worsen once the wound has become infected.

Venous skin ulcers that may appear on the lower leg, above the calf or on the lower ankle usually cause achy and swollen legs. If these ulcers become infected they may develop an unpleasant odour, increased tenderness and redness. Before the ulcer establishes definitively, there may be a dark red or purple skin over the affected area as well as a thickening, drying, and itchy skin.

Although skin ulcers do not seem of great concern at a first glance, they are worrying conditions especially in people suffering from diabetes, as they are at risk of developing diabetic neuropathy.

Ulcers may also appear on the cheeks, soft palate, the tongue, and on the inside of the lower lip. These ulcers usually last from 7 to 14 days and can be painful.[3]

Different types of discharges from ulcer are:[4]

Wagner’s grading of ulcer follows:[4]

Some of the investigations done for ulcer are:[4]

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Ulcer (dermatology) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Stem Cell Therapy in Mexico. You Can Improve Your Life …

June 13, 2015 By: lokkol Category: Stem Cell Therapy

Our Clinic Our clinic has been certified by the COFEPRIS, which is Mexico’s regulatory health organization and performs the same functions as the FDA in the United States.

We have received countless testimonials from very satisfied patients, and if you’re traveling to Mexico from the U.S. to receive treatments, we will provide you with a personal assistant who will translate from Spanish to English, give you medical passes that you can use to cross the border swiftly, transport you to and from the airport and help you find our office and your hotel in Tijuana.

http://progencell.com. ProgenCell offers an alternative stem cell treatment that is safe and effective. ProgenCell is able to use adult stem cells obtained from your own bone marrow and transfer the stem cells to a different part of your body through an IV (similar to blood transfusion). This stem cell therapy treatment can help relieve pain and even cure diseases. Learn how stem cells can help you today.

Get Started

If you would like to schedule an appointment, you can fill out the form on our website, and our representatives will contact you within 24 hours.

Additionally, if you have any questions or need immediate assistance, call our office at 1-888-443-6235. At ProgenCell we specialize in the treatment of different conditions including the following:

Stem Cell Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis This autoimmune disease causes inflammation in the body’s tissues and organs. The condition can be present for more than five years before the patient recognizes any symptoms, and usually, rheumatoid arthritis affects the joints first. Stem cell therapy may help this condition. Over time, this type of arthritis can disfigure the joints and prevent them from functioning properly.

By injecting stem cells into areas of the body that have been damaged by the condition, the healthy cells will regenerate the old, weakened tissues, and as the new cells divide, their positive effects will increase.

Stem Cell Therapy for Systemic Lupus The immune system of an individual with systemic lupus will attack the person’s own cells, and usually, the disease primarily affects the heart, the lungs and the kidneys.

Physicians treat the condition by prescribing medications that suppress the activity of the immune system, such as corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide. Stem cell therapy may help this condition.

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Stem Cell Therapy in Mexico. You Can Improve Your Life …

Stem Cell Therapy for Neuromuscular Diseases | InTechOpen

June 13, 2015 By: heissegiohoft Category: Stem Cell Therapy

1. Introduction

Neuromuscular disease is a very broad term that encompasses many diseases and aliments that either directly, via intrinsic muscle pathology, or indirectly, via nerve pathology, impair the functioning of the muscles. Neuromuscular diseases affect the muscles and/or their nervous control and lead to problems with movement. Many are genetic; sometimes, an immune system disorder can cause them. As they have no cure, the aim of clinical treatment is to improve symptoms, increase mobility and lengthen life. Some of them affect the anterior horn cell, and are classified as acquired (e.g. poliomyelitis) and hereditary (e.g. spinal muscular atrophy) diseases. SMA is a genetic disease that attacks nerve cells, called motor neurons, in the spinal cord. As a consequence of the lost of the neurons, muscles weakness becomes to be evident, affecting walking, crawling, breathing, swallowing and head and neck control. Neuropathies affect the peripheral nerve and are divided into demyelinating (e.g. leucodystrophies) and axonal (e.g. porphyria) diseases. Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) is the most frequent hereditary form among the neuropathies and its characterized by a wide range of symptoms so that CMT-1a is classified as demyelinating and CMT-2 as axonal (Marchesi & Pareyson, 2010). Defects in neuromuscular junctions cause infantile and non-infantile Botulism and Myasthenia Gravis (MG). MG is a antibody-mediated autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) (Drachman, 1994; Meriggioli & Sanders, 2009). In most cases, it is caused by pathogenic autoantibodies directed towards the skeletal muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR) (Patrick & Lindstrom, 1973) while in others, non-AChR components of the postsynaptic muscle endplate, such as the muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MUSK), might serve as targets for the autoimmune attack (Hoch et al., 2001). Although the precise origin of the autoimmune response in MG is not known, genetic predisposition and abnormalities of the thymus gland such as hyperplasia and neoplasia could have an important role in the onset of the disease (Berrih et al., 1984; Roxanis et al., 2001).

Several diseases affect muscles: they are classified as acquired (e.g. dermatomyositis and polymyositis) and hereditary (e.g. myotonic disorders and myopaties) forms. Among the myopaties, muscular dystrophies are characterized by the primary wasting of skeletal muscle, caused by mutations in the proteins that form the link between the cytoskeleton and the basal lamina (Cossu & Sampaolesi, 2007). Mutations in the dystrophin gene cause severe form of hereditary muscular diseases; the most common are Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) and Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD). DMD patients suffer for complete lack of dystrophin that causes progressive degeneration, muscle wasting and death into the second/third decade of life. Beside, BMD patients show a very mild phenotype, often asymptomatic primarily due to the expression of shorter dystrophin mRNA transcripts that maintain the coding reading frame. DMD patients muscles show absence of dystrophin and presence of endomysial fibrosis, small fibers rounded and muscle fiber degeneration/regeneration. Untreated, boys with DMD become progressively weak during their childhood and stop ambulation at a mean age of 9 years, later with corticosteroid treatment (12/13 yrs). Proximal weakness affects symmetrically the lower (such as quadriceps and gluteus) before the upper extremities, with progression to the point of wheelchair dependence. Eventually distal lower and then upper limb weakness occurs. Weakness of neck flexors is often present at the beginning, and most patients with DMD have never been able to jump. Wrist and hand muscles are involved later, allowing the patients to keep their autonomy in transfers using a joystick to guide their wheelchair. Musculoskeletal contractures (ankle, knees and hips) and learning difficulties can complicate the clinical expression of the disease. Besides this weakness distribution in the same patient, a deep variability among patients does exist. They could express a mild phenotype, between Becker and Duchenne dystrophy, or a really severe form, with the loss of deambulation at 7-8 years. Confinement to a wheelchair is followed by the development of scoliosis, respiratory failure and cardiomyopathy. In 90% of people death is directly related to chronic respiratory insufficiency (Rideau et al., 1983). The identification and characterization of dystrophin gene led to the development of potential treatments for this disorder (Bertoni, 2008). Even if only corticosteroids were proven to be effective on DMD patient (Hyser and Mendell, 1988), different therapeutic approaches were attempted, as described in detail below (see section 7).

The identification and characterization of the genes whose mutations caused the most common neuromuscular diseases led to the development of potential treatments for those disorders. Gene therapy for neuromuscular disorders embraced several concepts, including replacing and repairing a defective gene or modifying or enhancing cellular performance, using gene that is not directly related to the underlying defect (Shavlakadze et al., 2004). As an example, the finding that DMD pathology was caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene allowed the rising of different therapeutic approaches including growth-modulating agents that increase muscle regeneration and delay muscle fibrosis (Tinsley et al., 1998), powerful antisense oligonucleotides with exon-skipping capacity (Mc Clorey et al., 2006), anti-inflammatory or second-messenger signal-modulating agents that affect immune responses (Biggar et al., 2006), agents designed to suppress stop codon mutations (Hamed, 2006). Viral and non-viral vectors were used to deliver the full-length – or restricted versions – of the dystrophin gene into stem cells; alternatively, specific antisense oligonucleotides were designed to mask the putative splicing sites of exons in the mutated region of the primary RNA transcript whose removal would re-establish a correct reading frame. In parallel, the biology of stem cells and their role in regeneration were the subject of intensive and extensive research in many laboratories around the world because of the promise of stem cells as therapeutic agents to regenerate tissues damaged by disease or injury (Fuchs and Segre, 2000; Weissman, 2000). This research constituted a significant part of the rapidly developing field of regenerative biology and medicine, and the combination of gene and cell therapy arose as one of the most suitable possibility to treat degenerative disorders. Several works were published in which stem cell were genetically modified by ex vivo introduction of corrective genes and then transplanted in donor dystrophic animal models.

Stem cells received much attention because of their potential use in cell-based therapies for human disease such as leukaemia (Owonikoko et al., 2007), Parkinsons disease (Singh et al., 2007), and neuromuscular disorders (Endo, 2007; Nowak and Davies, 2004). The main advantage of stem cells rather than the other cells of the body is that they can replenish their numbers for long periods through cell division and, they can produce a progeny that can differentiate into multiple cell lineages with specific functions (Bertoni, 2008). The candidate stem cell had to be easy to extract, maintaining the capacity of myogenic conversion when transplanted into the host muscle and also the survival and the subsequent migration from the site of injection to the compromise muscles of the body (Price et al., 2007). With the advent of more sensitive markers, stem cell populations suitable for clinical experiments were found to derive from multiple region of the body at various stage of development. Numerous studies showed that the regenerative capacity of stem cells resided in the environmental microniche and its regulation. This way, it could be important to better elucidate the molecular composition cytokines, growth factors, cell adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix molecules – and interactions of the different microniches that regulate stem cell development (Stocum, 2001).

Several groups published different works concerning adult stem cells such as muscle-derived stem cells (Qu-Petersen et al., 2002), mesoangioblasts (Cossu and Bianco, 2003), blood- (Gavina et al., 2006) and muscle (Benchaouir et al., 2007)-derived CD133+ stem cells. Although some of them are able to migrate through the vasculature (Benchaouir et al., 2007; Galvez et al., 2006; Gavina et al., 2006) and efforts were done to increase their migratory ability (Lafreniere et al., 2006; Torrente et al., 2003a), poor results were obtained.

Embryonic and adult stem cells differ significantly in regard to their differentiation potential and in vitro expansion capability. While adult stem cells constitute a reservoir for tissue regeneration throughout the adult life, they are tissue-specific and possess limited capacity to be expanded ex vivo. Embryonic Stem (ES) cells are derived from the inner cell mass of blastocyst embryos and, by definition, are capable of unlimited in vitro self-renewal and have the ability to differentiate into any cell type of the body (Darabi et al., 2008b). ES cells, together with recently identified iPS cells, are now broadly and extensively studied for their applications in clinical studies.

Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells derived from the early embryo that are characterized by the ability to proliferate over prolonged periods of culture remaining undifferentiated and maintaining a stable karyotype (Amit and Itskovitz-Eldor, 2002; Carpenter et al., 2003; Hoffman and Carpenter, 2005). They are capable of differentiating into cells present in all 3 embryonic germ layers, namely ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm, and are characterized by self-renewal, immortality, and pluripotency (Strulovici et al., 2007).

hESCs are derived by microsurgical removal of cells from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst stage embryo (Fig. 1). The ES cells can be also obtained from single blastomeres. This technique creates ES cells from a single blastomere directly removed from the embryo bypassing the ethical issue of embryo destruction (Klimanskaya et al., 2006). Although maintaining the viability of the embryo, it has to be determined whether embryonic stem cell lines derived from a single blastomere that does not compromise the embryo can be considered for clinical studies. Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT): Nuclear transfer, also referred to as nuclear cloning, denotes the introduction of a nucleus from an adult donor cell into an enucleated oocyte to generate a cloned embryo (Wilmut et al., 2002).

ESCs differentiation. Differentiation potentiality of human embryonic stem cell lines. Human embryonic stem cell pluripotency is evaluated by the ability of the cells to differentiate into different cell types.

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