Behavioral Science Research Corporation

August 02, 2015 By: painlord2k Category: Behavioral Science

For more than 25 years, providing intelligent solutions to problems of marketing and management.

Since 1975, Behavioral Science Research has been dedicated to finding intelligent, creative solutions to real-world problems in corporate management, new product development, public opinion assessment, and marketing.

Bringing an extra measure of intelligence and experience to solving your problems. High-tech research, sophisticated statistical tests or creative questionnaires. Behavioral Science Research gets you research you can use. Immediately. With confidence. In the marketplace, in the boardroom, or in court.

The problems you face today are more complex and more demanding than they have ever been. When simplistic answers and cold numbers are not enough, turn to Behavioral Science Research where we turn your unanswered questions into solved problems.

When you know how people think, you gain a measure of mastery over their decisions.

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Behavioral Science Research Corporation

Skin Stem Cells: Benefits, Types, Medical Applications and …

August 01, 2015 By: Walid Yassin Category: Skin Stem Cells

Our skin has the amazing capability to renew itself throughout our adult life. Also, our hair follicle goes through a cycle of growth and degeneration. This happens all the time in our skin even though we are not aware of it. However, even though skin renews itself we still have to help it a little bit to get better results. Stem cells play an important role in this process of skin renewal or hair growth and the purpose of this article is to discuss and provide additional information about these tiny cells that play a big part in our life.

Skin stem cell is defined as multipotent adult skin cells which are able to self-renew or differentiate into various cell lineages of the skin. These cells are active throughout our life via skin renewal process or during skin repair after injuries. These cells reside in the epidermis and hair follicle and one of their purposes is to ensure the maintenance of adult skin and hair regeneration.

The truth is, without these little cells, our skin wouldnt be able to cope with various environmental influences. Our skin is exposed to different influences 24/7, for example, washing your face with soap, going out during summer or cold winter days etc. All these factors have a big impact on our skin and it constantly has to renew itself to stay in a good condition. This is where skin stem cells step in. They make sure your skin survives the influence of constant stress, heat, cold, even makeup, soap, etc.

Our skin is quite sensitive and due to its constant exposure to different influences throughout the day, it can get easily damage. Damage to skin cells can be caused by pretty much everything, from soap to cigarette smoke. One of the most frequent skin cell damages are the result of:

Skin stem cells are still subjected to scientific projects where researchers are trying to discover as much as possible about them. So far, they have identified several types of these cells, and they are:

Also, some scientists suggest that there is another type of stem cells mesenchymal stem cells which can be found in dermis (layer situated below the epidermis) and hypodermis (innermost and the thickest layer of the skin). However, this claim has been branded controversial and is a subject of many arguments and disputes between scientists. It is needed to conduct more experiments to find out whether this statement really is true.

Stem cells are found in many organs and tissues, besides skin. For example, scientists have discovered stem sells in brain, heart, bone marrow, peripheral blood, skeletal muscle, teeth, liver, gut etc. Stem cells reside in a specific area of each tissue or organ and that area is called stem cell niche. The same case is with the skin as well.

The ability of stem cells to regenerate and form almost any cell type in the body inspired scientists to work on various skin products that contain stem cells. Also, they decided to investigate the effect of plant stem cells on human skin. They discovered that plant stem cells are, actually, very similar to human skin stem cells and they function in a similar way as well. This discovery made scientists turn to plants as the source of stem cells and are trying to include them into the skin products due to their effectiveness in supporting skins cellular turnover. Another similarity between plant stem cells and human skin stem cells is their ability to develop according to their environment.

Fun Fact: The inspiration to use plant stem cells in skin care came from an unusual place almost extinct apple tree from Switzerland.

The benefits of plant stem cells on human skin are versatile. They offer possibility to treat some skin conditions, heal wounds, and repair the skin after some injury faster than it would usually take. Also, they bring back elasticity to the skin, reduce the appearance of wrinkles and slow down the aging process.

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Skin Stem Cells: Benefits, Types, Medical Applications and …

Dermatology – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

August 01, 2015 By: admin Category: Dermatology

Dermatology is the branch of medicine dealing with the hair, nails, skin and its diseases.[1][2] It is a specialty with both medical and surgical aspects.[3][4][5] A dermatologist treats diseases, in the widest sense,[6] and some cosmetic problems of the skin, scalp, hair, and nails.[2][7]

Attested in English in 1819, the word dermatology derives from the Greek (dermatos), genitive of (derma), “skin”[8] (itself from dero, “to flay”[9]) and – -logia,

Readily visible alterations of the skin surface have been recognized since the dawn of history, with some being treated, and some not.[citation needed] In 1801 the first great school of dermatology became a reality at the famous Hpital Saint-Louis in Paris, while the first textbooks (Willan’s, 17981808) and atlases (Alibert’s, 18061814) appeared in print during the same period of time.[10]

After earning a medical degree (M.D. or D.O.), the length of training in the United States for a general dermatologist to be eligible for Board Certification by the American Academy of Dermatology, American Board of Dermatology or the American Osteopathic Board of Dermatology is a total of four years. This training consists of an initial medical, transitional, or surgical intern year followed by a three-year dermatology residency.[2][11][12] Following this training, one- or two- year post-residency fellowships are available in immunodermatology, phototherapy, laser medicine, Mohs micrographic surgery, cosmetic surgery or dermatopathology. For the past several years, dermatology residency positions in the United States have been one of the most competitive to obtain.[13][14][15]

Dermatologists have been leaders in the field of cosmetic surgery.[16] Some dermatologists complete fellowships in surgical dermatology. Many are trained in their residency on the use of botulinum toxin, fillers, and laser surgery. Some dermatologists perform cosmetic procedures including liposuction, blepharoplasty, and face lifts.[17][18] Most dermatologists limit their cosmetic practice to minimally invasive procedures. Despite an absence of formal guidelines from the American Board of Dermatology, many cosmetic fellowships are offered in both surgery and laser medicine.[citation needed]

A dermatolopathologist is a pathologist or dermatologist who specializes in the pathology of the skin. This field is shared by dermatologists and pathologists. Usually a dermatologist or pathologist will complete one year of dermatopathology fellowship. This usually includes six months of general pathology, and six months of dermatopathology.[19] Alumni of both specialties can qualify as dermatopathologists. At the completion of a standard residency in dermatology, many dermatologists are also competent at dermatopathology. Some dermatopathologists qualify to sit for their examinations by completing a residency in dermatology and one in pathology.

This field specializes in the treatment of immune-mediated skin diseases such as lupus, bullous pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris, and other immune-mediated skin disorders. Specialists in this field often run their own immunopathology labs.[citation needed]

The dermatologic subspecialty called Mohs surgery focuses on the excision of skin cancers using a tissue-sparing technique that allows intraoperative assessment of 100% of the peripheral and deep tumor margins developed in the 1930s by Dr. Frederic E. Mohs. The procedure is defined as a type of CCPDMA processing. Physicians trained in this technique must be comfortable with both pathology and surgery, and dermatologists receive extensive training in both during their residency. Physicians who perform Mohs surgery can receive training in this specialized technique during their dermatology residency, but many will seek additional training either through preceptorships to join the American Society for Mohs Surgery[20] or through formal one- to two-year Mohs surgery fellowship training programs administered by the American College of Mohs Surgery.[21]

This technique requires the integration of the same doctor in two different capacities: surgeon as well as pathologist. In case either of the two responsibilities is assigned to another doctor or qualified health care professional, it will not be considered to be Mohs surgery.

Physicians can qualify for this specialization by completing both a pediatric residency and a dermatology residency. Or they might elect to complete a post-residency fellowship.[22] This field encompasses the complex diseases of the neonates, hereditary skin diseases or genodermatoses, and the many difficulties of working with the pediatric population.[citation needed]

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Dermatology – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Aging and Longevity 3. Glycation – Living To 150

July 31, 2015 By: stoommica Category: Longevity

Glycation is one of four key process which lead to aging by damaging cells. Addressing these four issues reduces aging.

Glycation is a process where sugar and protein molecules combine to form a tangled mess of tissue. Glycated tissue is tough and inflexible, leading to wrinkling not only of the skin, but also of important internal organs. Furthermore, glycated tissues then produce Aged Glycation End-products [AGEs], which further compound the problem by producing large numbers of damaging free radicals.

All in all, glycation is a nightmare process which degrades important body tissues. It must be dramatically reduced if aging is to be minimized.

Glycation causes tough, wrinkled connective tissue. This is most visible on the skin as wrinkles. However, it occurs all through the body. Tough, inelastic connective tissue is very damaging to organs where flexibility is vital. This is especially important in the heart, kidneys, brain, eyes and pancreas.

The lack of flexibility in the important organs leads to reduced functionality and early death. The reason diabetics suffer from organ ailments earlier than most people is that their raised blood sugar level produce greater glycation.

Glycation cannot be stopped completely; neither can it be reversed, currently. However, it can be reduced considerably by making changes in lifestyle and diet.

There are two main causes of glycation;

Continually high blood glucose promotes glycation, as well as other aging processes and degenerative diseases. If glycation is to be reduced, then so must the intake of sugar from the diet.

Sugar in the Diet

Dietary sugar comes from the obvious sugary sources including honey and maple syrup but it also comes from starchy food, many of which are close to 100% sugar, when they are broken down in the body.

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Aging and Longevity 3. Glycation – Living To 150

Skeletal System Labeled Diagrams of the Human Skeleton

July 23, 2015 By: Walid Yassin Category: Anatomy

[Continued from above] . . . calcium, iron, and energy in the form of fat. Finally, the skeleton grows throughout childhood and provides a framework for the rest of the body to grow along with it.

The skeletal system in an adult body is made up of 206 individual bones. These bones are arranged into two major divisions: the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton runs along the bodys midline axis and is made up of 80 bones in the following regions:

The appendicular skeleton is made up of 126 bones in the folowing regions:

Skull The skull is composed of 22 bones that are fused together except for the mandible. These 21 fused bones are separate in children to allow the skull and brain to grow, but fuse to give added strength and protection as an adult. The mandible remains as a movable jaw bone and forms the only movable joint in the skull with the temporal bone.

The bones of the superior portion of the skull are known as the cranium and protect the brain from damage. The bones of the inferior and anterior portion of the skull are known as facial bones and support the eyes, nose, and mouth.

Hyoid and Auditory Ossicles The hyoid is a small, U-shaped bone found just inferior to the mandible. The hyoid is the only bone in the body that does not form a joint with any other boneit is a floating bone. The hyoids function is to help hold the trachea open and to form a bony connection for the tongue muscles.

The malleus, incus, and stapesknown collectively as the auditory ossiclesare the smallest bones in the body. Found in a small cavity inside of the temporal bone, they serve to transmit and amplify sound from the eardrum to the inner ear.

Vertebrae Twenty-six vertebrae form the vertebral column of the human body. They are named by region:

With the exception of the singular sacrum and coccyx, each vertebra is named for the first letter of its region and its position along the superior-inferior axis. For example, the most superior thoracic vertebra is called T1 and the most inferior is called T12.

Ribs and Sternum The sternum, or breastbone, is a thin, knife-shaped bone located along the midline of the anterior side of the thoracic region of the skeleton. The sternum connects to the ribs by thin bands of cartilage called the costal cartilage.

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Skeletal System Labeled Diagrams of the Human Skeleton

Emerging interactions between skin stem cells and their …

July 23, 2015 By: BoicepSip Category: Skin Stem Cells

Hair follicle lineage and niche signals regulate hair follicle stem cells. (a) HFSCs can exist in two states. Quiescent bulge stem cells (Bu-SCs) are located in the outer layer of this niche and contribute to the generation of the outer root sheath. Primed stem cells reside in the hair germ, sandwiched between the bulge and a specialized dermal cluster known as the dermal papilla. They are responsible for generating the transit amplifying cell (TAC) matrix, which then gives rise to the hair shaft and its inner root sheath (IRS) channel. Although matrix and IRS are destroyed during catagen, many of the outer root sheath (ORS) cells are spared and generate a new bulge right next to the original one at the end of catagen. The upper ORS contributes to the outer layer of the new bulge, and the middle ORS contributes to the hair germ. Some of the lower ORS cells become the differentiated inner keratin 6+ (K6+) bulge cells, which provide inhibitory signals to Bu-SCs, raising their activation threshold for the next hair cycle. (b) During telogen, K6+ bulge cells produce BMP6 and FGF-18, dermal fibroblasts (DFs) produce BMP4 and subcutaneous adipocytes express BMP2. Together, these factors maintain Bu-SCs and hair germ in quiescence. At the transition to anagen, BMP2 and BMP4 are downregulated, whereas the expression of activation factors including noggin (NOG), FGF-7, FGF-10 and TGF-2 from dermal papillae and PDGF- from adipocyte precursor cells (APCs) is elevated. This, in turn, stimulates hair germ proliferation, and a new hair cycle is launched. Bu-SCs maintain their quiescent state until TAC matrix is generated and starts producing SHH.

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Emerging interactions between skin stem cells and their …

Dermatology Lafayette, LA – Louisiana, Lake Charles, Baton …

July 23, 2015 By: painlord2k Category: Dermatology

Everyone has Natural Beauty. The secret is to let it show.

Welcome to a Jeun Advanced Medical Skin Care, the Medical Spa of the Future! Our goal is to provide you with the best answers and the most expert medical aesthetic skin care for a natural and beautiful result.

With over two decades Dermatologic and Medi-Spa experience, Dr. Christopher R. Hubbell, MD, FAAD, gives you the advantages of a combined and comprehensive treatment approach by an experienced and accomplished Board Certified Skin Expert. Under his direction, our team provides the latest techniques and therapies, skin treatments and products, as well as Facial Enhancements and Medi-Spa Therapies.

Most Advanced Treatments.

Advanced Expertise and Extensive Experience.

Experienced Dermatologists and Dermasurgeons have the greatest amount of knowledge and expertise regarding the skin and its appearance compared to non physician practitioners and physicians of other specialties. a Jeun offers the best and most comprehensive approach to satisfy your aesthetic skin care concerns. Read more about how to Pick your Provider.

Dr. Christopher Hubbell founded Acadiana Dermatology (AMPC) in 1994. He formally founded and has directed a Jeun Advanced Medi-Spa since 2006. a Jeun is unique in that it is, as of this writing, the only aesthetic skin care center in Acadiana that is owned, operated, and directed by a Board Certified Skin Expert. In addition, Dr. Hubbell combines over two decades of medical, surgical, laser, and aesthetic skin care experience, and artistry expertise with the latest in technologies and techniques.

We are excited about, but do not take for granted, the opportunity to be the local leaders in providing advanced aesthetic skin care with a special focus on safety, results and optimum value!

Our team works together to provide you with an excellent beauty experience and looks forward to welcoming you. To schedule a consultation, ask questions or receive a complimentary information package please contact us or call (337) 989-7272.

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Dermatology Lafayette, LA – Louisiana, Lake Charles, Baton …

Mutation – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

July 23, 2015 By: heissegiohoft Category: Genetics

In biology, a mutation is a permanent change of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements. Mutations result from damage to DNA which is not repaired or to RNA genomes (typically caused by radiation or chemical mutagens), errors in the process of replication, or from the insertion or deletion of segments of DNA by mobile genetic elements.[1][2][3] Mutations may or may not produce discernible changes in the observable characteristics (phenotype) of an organism. Mutations play a part in both normal and abnormal biological processes including: evolution, cancer, and the development of the immune system, including junctional diversity.

Mutation can result in several different types of change in sequences. Mutations in genes can either have no effect, alter the product of a gene, or prevent the gene from functioning properly or completely. Mutations can also occur in nongenic regions. One study on genetic variations between different species of Drosophila suggests that, if a mutation changes a protein produced by a gene, the result is likely to be harmful, with an estimated 70 percent of amino acid polymorphisms that have damaging effects, and the remainder being either neutral or weakly beneficial.[4] Due to the damaging effects that mutations can have on genes, organisms have mechanisms such as DNA repair to prevent or correct (revert the mutated sequence back to its original state) mutations.[1]

Mutations can involve the duplication of large sections of DNA, usually through genetic recombination.[5] These duplications are a major source of raw material for evolving new genes, with tens to hundreds of genes duplicated in animal genomes every million years.[6] Most genes belong to larger families of genes of shared ancestry.[7] Novel genes are produced by several methods, commonly through the duplication and mutation of an ancestral gene, or by recombining parts of different genes to form new combinations with new functions.[8][9]

Here, domains act as modules, each with a particular and independent function, that can be mixed together to produce genes encoding new proteins with novel properties.[10] For example, the human eye uses four genes to make structures that sense light: three for color vision and one for night vision; all four arose from a single ancestral gene.[11] Another advantage of duplicating a gene (or even an entire genome) is that this increases redundancy; this allows one gene in the pair to acquire a new function while the other copy performs the original function.[12][13] Other types of mutation occasionally create new genes from previously noncoding DNA.[14][15]

Changes in chromosome number may involve even larger mutations, where segments of the DNA within chromosomes break and then rearrange. For example, in the Homininae, two chromosomes fused to produce human chromosome 2; this fusion did not occur in the lineage of the other apes, and they retain these separate chromosomes.[16] In evolution, the most important role of such chromosomal rearrangements may be to accelerate the divergence of a population into new species by making populations less likely to interbreed, thereby preserving genetic differences between these populations.[17]

Sequences of DNA that can move about the genome, such as transposons, make up a major fraction of the genetic material of plants and animals, and may have been important in the evolution of genomes.[18] For example, more than a million copies of the Alu sequence are present in the human genome, and these sequences have now been recruited to perform functions such as regulating gene expression.[19] Another effect of these mobile DNA sequences is that when they move within a genome, they can mutate or delete existing genes and thereby produce genetic diversity.[2]

Nonlethal mutations accumulate within the gene pool and increase the amount of genetic variation.[20] The abundance of some genetic changes within the gene pool can be reduced by natural selection, while other “more favorable” mutations may accumulate and result in adaptive changes.

For example, a butterfly may produce offspring with new mutations. The majority of these mutations will have no effect; but one might change the color of one of the butterfly’s offspring, making it harder (or easier) for predators to see. If this color change is advantageous, the chance of this butterfly’s surviving and producing its own offspring are a little better, and over time the number of butterflies with this mutation may form a larger percentage of the population.

Neutral mutations are defined as mutations whose effects do not influence the fitness of an individual. These can accumulate over time due to genetic drift. It is believed that the overwhelming majority of mutations have no significant effect on an organism’s fitness.[citation needed] Also, DNA repair mechanisms are able to mend most changes before they become permanent mutations, and many organisms have mechanisms for eliminating otherwise-permanently mutated somatic cells.

Beneficial mutations can improve reproductive success.

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Mutation – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Applied behavior analysis – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

July 23, 2015 By: admin Category: Behavioral Science

Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is defined as the process of systematically applying interventions based upon the principles of learning theory to improve socially significant behaviors to a meaningful degree, and to demonstrate that the interventions employed are responsible for the improvement in behavior.[1] Despite much confusion throughout the mental health community, ABA was previously called behavior modification but it revised as the earlier approach involved superimposing consequences to change behavior without determining the behavior-environment interactions first. Moreover, the current approach also seeks to emit replacement behaviors which serve the same function as the aberrant behaviors.[2][3][4] By functionally assessing the relationship between a targeted behavior and the environment as well as identifying antecedents and consequences, the methods of ABA can be used to change that behavior.[3]

Methods in applied behavior analysis range from validated intensive behavioral interventionsmost notably utilized for children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD)[5]to basic research which investigates the rules by which humans adapt and maintain behavior. However, ABA contributes to a full range of areas including: HIV prevention,[6] conservation of natural resources,[7] education,[8]gerontology,[9]health and exercise,[10]organizational behavior management (i.e., industrial safety),[11]language acquisition,[12] littering,[13]medical procedures,[14] parenting,[15]psychotherapy, seatbelt use,[16]severe mental disorders,[17] sports,[18]substance abuse, and zoo management and care of animals.[19]

ABA is defined as an applied natural science devoted to developing and analyzing procedures that produce effective and beneficial changes in behavior.[1] It is one of the three fields of behavior analysis. The other two are radical behaviorism, or the philosophy of the science; and experimental analysis of behavior, or basic experimental research.[5] ABA is also based on operant and respondent conditioning and social learning theory. While radical behaviorism forms the conceptual piece for behavior analysis and acknowledges the presence of cognition and emotions, methodological behaviorism only recognized observable behaviors; the latter was the basis behind behavior modification throughout the 1960s and 1970s.

Contrary to popular belief, behavior analysts emphasize that the science of behavior must be a natural science as opposed to a social science.[20] As such, behavior analysts focus on the observable relationship of behavior to the environment, including antecedents and consequences, without resort to “hypothetical constructs”.[21]

Although deriving from a similar philosophy, behavior modification only changed behavior by superimposing consequential procedures; instead, ABA seeks to understand environmental contingencies.[2][3] More specifically, it analyzes the function of behavior, such as what prompts that behavior (the antecedent) as well as promoting replacement behaviors and consequential strategies.[4] Typically, ABA is based on data collection and assessments to accurately examine a behavior’s function and to discover the procedures that will produce measurable behavioral changes.

Much of the beginnings of ABA can be traced to a group of faculty and researchers at the University of Washington including Don Baer, Sidney Bijou, Bill Hopkins, Jay Birnbrauer, Ivar Lovaas, Todd Risley, James Sherman, and Montrose Wolf.[22] In the 1960s, Baer, Hopkins, Risley, Sherman, and Wolf became faculty in the Department of Human Development and Family Life at the University of Kansas.[23] They and their colleagues began a concentrated effort at developing and perfecting the application of behavior analysis to address a wide variety of human problems. They also founded the Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis in 1968 which publishes research examining the application of behavior analysis to socially relevant behavior.

ABA is a science used in a wide range of fields to change behavior with various subtypes, such as organizational behavior management, positive behavior support,[24][25][26] and clinical behavior analysis (including contingency management, acceptance and commitment therapy, and habit reversal training). Most of the time people use the subtype term early intensive behavioral intervention (including discrete trial teaching), a treatment procedure used for young children with autism, interchangeably with ABA. However, the latter is a distinct psychological science.[5]

Ole Ivar Lvaas is considered a grandfather of ABA and developed standardized teaching interventions based on those behavioral principals. Lovaas devoted nearly a half a century to groundbreaking research and practice aimed at improving the lives of children with autism and their families. In 1965, Lovaas published a series of articles that therapeutic approaches to autism. The first two articles presented his system for coding behaviors during direct observations and a pioneering investigation of superimposed antecedents and consequences that maintained a problem behavior.[27] The subsequent articles built upon these methods and reported the first demonstration of an effective way to teach nonverbal children to speak, a study on establishing social (secondary) reinforcers, a procedure for teaching children to imitate, and several studies on interventions to reduce life-threatening self-injury and aggression.

Lovaas was cited in his early career to use low dosages of electroshock therapy to children with extreme self injurious behavior.[27] In 1973, Lovaas published a long-term follow-up for the behavior modification intervention and was dismayed to find that most of the subjects had reverted to their pre-intervention behaviors. After these findings, Lovaas and his colleagues proposed several ways to improve outcomes such as starting intervention during the children’s preschool years instead of later in childhood or adolescence, involving parents in the intervention, and implementing the intervention in the family’s home rather than an institutional setting. Subsequent articles like the 1987 “Behavioral Treatment and Normal Educational and Intellectual Functioning in Young Autistic Children” reinforce this proposal of early and intensive interventionwithout the use of aversives (such as electric shocks)paired with continual therapy yields the most effective results for children with autism.[27] Lovaas highly believed that the support and involvement in parents applying therapy at home contributed to a higher success rate. Lovaas dedicated his life to the study of autism and was a strong advocate for people with autism even co-founding what is today the Autism Society of America.[27]

Baer, Wolf, and Risley’s 1968 article[28] is still used as the standard description of ABA.[29] It describes the seven dimensions of ABA: application; a focus on behavior; the use of analysis; and its technological, conceptually systematic, effective, and general approach.

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Applied behavior analysis – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Genetics – definition of genetics by Medical dictionary

July 22, 2015 By: Walid Yassin Category: Genetics

genetics [j-netiks]

the branch of biology dealing with the phenomena of heredity and the laws governing it.

Many pediatric hospital admissions involve genetic disorders. In obstetrics and neonatal medicine, prenatal diagnosis of genetic defects and improvement of pre- and perinatal conditions are a major concern. In adults, such diseases as breast cancer, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus have all been found to have predisposing genetic components that are relevant to identification of risk factors and early diagnosis.

1. The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biologic inheritance.

2. The genetic features and constitution of any single organism or set of organisms.

[G. genesis, origin or production]

biochemical genetics the science concerned with the chemical and physical nature of genes and the mechanism by which they control the development and maintenance of the organism.

clinical genetics the study of genetic factors influencing the occurrence of a pathologic condition.

The branch of biology that deals with heredity, especially the mechanisms of hereditary transmission and the variation of inherited traits among similar or related organisms.


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Genetics – definition of genetics by Medical dictionary