Physiology Jobs – Science Careers

September 01, 2015 By: heissegiohoft Category: Physiology

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Haverford, Pennsylvania (US) Commensurate with experience Haverford College

Haverford College seeks outstanding candidates for a tenure-track position in the Biology Department in the areas of cellular biochemistry and phys…

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Saint Petersburg, Florida Salary + full benefits Eckerd College Marine Science

MARINE PHYSIOLOGIST and BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHER. Two positions, tenure-track ASSISTANT PROFESSOR to begin September 2016; Ph.D. required. Eckerd C…

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Syracuse, New York competitive Le Moyne College

Le Moyne College is an independent Jesuit college established in 1946 to provide students with a values-based, comprehensive academic program desig…

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Bethlehem, Pennsylvania (US) negotiable Lehigh University

Tenure-track position with research specialty in phsyiology

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North America Competitive University of Louisville

Biology, Physiology, University of Louisville, Position Level Open, Begin August 2016

Claremont, California Contract Claremont McKenna College

Review of applications will begin September 21st 2015, and the position will remain open until filled.

Stockton, California (US) Salary plus benetifs University of the Pacific

Assistant Professor, Biological Sciences, Tenure Track

Boulder, Colorado This is an open rank position and salary is commenserate with rank/experience. University of Colorado Boulder

Joint Tenure-Track Position in Integrative Physiology and Psychology/ Neuroscience. Applications only accepted electronically at https://www.jobsat…

Worcester County, Massachusetts (US) Undisclosed University of Massachusetts Medical School

Depending on qualifications, candidates may be proposed for a more senior appointment at the rank of ASSOCIATE or FULL PROFESSOR.

Hanover, New Hampshire (US) Undisclosed Dartmouth College

The Department of Biological Sciences at Dartmouth invites applications for a full time, tenure-track position in Neuroscience at the Assistant, As…

Sioux Falls, South Dakota (US) Undisclosed Sanford Research

Will carry out independent scientific research including complex laboratory testing, experiments and analysis…write technical summaries and co-au…

Boulder, Colorado Undisclosed University of Colorado

Applicants should have a Ph.D. and/or M.D. degree and no more than three years of prior postdoctoral experience.

Shreveport, Louisiana Undisclosed Louisiana State University Health Science Center

Successful applicants will be expected to develop an independent, nationally funded research program and to contribute to the education mission of …

Seattle, Washington State Two years funding, a $65,000 yearly salary, a $25,000 budget for research and generous benefits. University of Washington Institute for Neuroengineering

Innovative postdoctoral fellowships at the intersection of neuroscience, engineering, computing, and mathematics.

Seattle, Washington State Undisclosed eScience Institute The University of Washington

Postdoctoral Fellowships in Data Science for researchers with expertise in the methods of data science and in a physical, life, or social science.

Rochester, NY, United States Salary and benefits are competitive and commensurate with rank. University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry

Assistant Professor Position Available in the Department of Pharmacology and Physiology at the University of Rochester

Midwest Negotiable WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY/CIMED

The Center for the Investigation of Membrane Excitability Diseases at Washington University invites applications for tenure-track faculty positions…

Houston, Texas NIH Standard Baylor College of Medicine

A postdoctoral position is available immediately at Baylor College of Medicine to investigate the neural control of feeding behavior and central me…

Glendale, Arizona (US) Based on experience Midwestern University Glendale

The Department of Physiology at Midwestern University Glendale invites applications for a tenure-track faculty position in physiology at the rank o…

Suburban Washington, DC USA (Bethesda, Maryland) Minimum of $44,900 plus health insurance coverage NIH/NHLBI

This is a position as a postdoctoral fellow to study the biochemistry and molecular biology of redox modifications of proteins.

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Physiology Jobs – Science Careers

Physiology – Superpower Wiki

September 01, 2015 By: admin Category: Physiology

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Physiology | Article about Physiology by The Free Dictionary

September 01, 2015 By: stoommica Category: Physiology

, study of the normal functioning of animals and plants during life and of the activities by which life is maintained and transmitted. It is based fundamentally on the activities of protoplasm. The study of function is usually undertaken along with a study of structure (see

), the two being intimately related. Since the discovery of the cell structure of tissues, the science of physiology has undergone rapid development. It includes the study of vital activities in cells, tissues, and organsof processes such as contractility of muscle tissue, coordination through the nervous system, feeding, digestion, excretion, respiration, circulation, reproduction, and secretion. Virtually every specialized field in the biological sciences (e.g., embryology, pathology, botany, zoology) involves a consideration of the physiological aspects of its subject. The study of human physiology was stimulated by the development of medicine, and it embraces many chemical and physical principles. Plant physiology includes also the study of photosynthesis and transpiration. A separate and specialized branch, plant physiology arose from attempts to apply the findings of animal physiology to plants and in its turn contributed to the development of general physiology, especially in the study of cells.

2.the processes and functions of all or part of an organism http://www.physoc.org/links/

in animals and man, the branch of science dealing with the life processes and individual systems, organs, and tissues of organisms, as well as with the regulation of physiological functions. Physiology also studies the interaction of living organisms with the environment and their behavior under different conditions.

Classification. Physiology is the most important branch of biology and includes a number of largely independent but closely related disciplines, among them general physiology, applied physiology, and the physiology of specific structures.

General physiology studies the physiological principles common to different species, the reactions of living organisms to stimuli, and the processes of excitation and inhibition. The electric phenomena occurring in the living organism, that is, its bioelectrical potentials, are investigated by electrophysiology. The phylogenetic development of physiological processes in different species of invertebrate and vertebrate animals is the concern of comparative physiology. Comparative physiology is in turn the basis of evolutionary physiology, which studies the origin and evolution of the life processes in relation to the general evolution of the organic world.

Developmental physiology studies the formation and development of physiological functions in the course of ontogeny, from the fertilization of the egg cell until death, and is closely associated with evolutionary physiology. The study of the evolution of functions is closely related to that of ecological physiology, which investigates the functioning of physiological systems in relation to the surrounding habitat, that is, it investigates the physiological basis of adaptation to a variety of environmental factors.

The physiology of specific structures investigates the life processes in individual groups or species of animals, for example, farm animals, birds, and insects, the properties of such specialized tissues as nerve and muscle tissue and of such organs as the kidneys and heart, and the ways in which these structures form specialized functional systems.

Applied physiology studies the general and specific principles that control the functioning of living organisms, and of man in particular, in relation to various aspects of life. Branches of applied physiology include the physiology of labor, sports physiology, the physiology of nutrition, aviation physiology, space physiology, and underwater physiology.

Physiology is also subdivided into normal and pathological physiology. Normal physiology primarily studies the functioning of the healthy organism, its interaction with the environment, and the mechanisms by which it resists and adapts to a variety of factors. Pathological physiology studies the altered functions of the diseased organism, the processes of compensation and adaptation in disease, and the mechanisms of recovery and rehabilitation. A branch of pathological physiology is clinical physiology, which studies the origin and activity of such functions as blood circulation, digestion, and higher nervous activity during disease in animals and man.

Relation to other sciences. As a branch of biology, physiology is closely related to such morphological sciences as anatomy, histology, and cytology, since morphology and physiology are interdependent. Physiology makes extensive use of the principles and methods of physics, chemistry, cybernetics, and mathematics. The chemical and physical processes occurring in the organism are studied in conjunction with biochemistry, biophysics, and bionics, and evolutionary laws are studied in conjunction with embryology. The physiology of higher nervous activity is associated with ethology, psychology, physiological psychology, and pedagogy. The physiology of farm animals has direct significance for livestock breeding, zootechny, and veterinary science. Physiology is most closely associated with medicine, which utilizes the achievements of physiology to diagnose, treat, and prevent a variety of diseases. Clinical medicine, in turn, provides physiology with new areas of investigation. The data established by physiological studies constitute part of the foundation of the natural sciences and are widely used in philosophy to substantiate the materialist world outlook.

Research methods. Progress in physiology depends directly on improvements in research methods. In I. P. Pavlovs words, Science moves by fits and starts and depends on advances in methodology. With every methodological advance, we as it were climb one step higher (Poln. sobr. soch., vol. 2, book 2, 1951, p. 22). The study of the functions of the living organism is based both on physiological methods as such and on the methods of physics, chemistry, mathematics, and cybernetics. Consequently, physiological processes may be studied at different levels, among them the cellular and molecular levels. The principal methods of studying the physiological processes of living organisms are observation and different types of experimentation performed on animals. However, an experiment performed on an animal under artificial conditions is not absolute in value and its results cannot be unqualifiedly extrapolated to man and animals living in natural conditions.

In acute experiments, organs and tissues are artificially isolated, organs are removed and artificially stimulated, and bioelectric potentials are derived from such organs. Chronic experiments facilitate the repeated study of a single phenomenon. Methods used in chronic experiments include the creation of fistulas, the placing of organs under a skin flap, the creation of heterogenous anastomoses between nerves, organ transplantation, and the implantation of electrodes.

Complex forms of behavior are studied by chronic experiments using the conditioned reflex or by instrumental methods combined with stimulation of the brain and the recording of bioelectric activity through implanted electrodes. The use of numerous long-term implanted electrodes and of the microelectrode technique for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes has advanced the study of the neurophysiology of the human brain. The recording of local changes in bioelectric and metabolic processes by plotting such changes on graphs has promoted an understanding of the structure and functioning of the brain. Investigations of higher nervous activity have been facilitated by using modifications of the classical conditioned reflex and by using modern electrophysiological methods. Clinical and functional tests on man and animals are another form of physiological experiment. Other physiological research methods include the artificial introduction in animals of such pathological processes as cancer, hypertension, exophthalmic goiter, and peptic ulcer; the use of artificial models and automatic electronic devices that simulate the functioning of the brain and the memory; and artificial prostheses.

Improved methods of research have radically altered experimental techniques and the recording of data. Electronic transformers have replaced mechanical systems, and the functions of man and animals are studied with great accuracy by means of electroencephalography, electrocardiography, electromyography, and especially biotelemetry. The use of stereotaxic apparatus provides information about the inner structures of the brain. Both automatic photography with electron-beam tubes and recording by means of electronic instruments are methods widely used to register physiological processes. In another widely used method, the results of physiological experiments are recorded on magnetic and punched tape and are then processed in a computer. The use of the electron microscope to study the nervous system provides accurate information on the structure of interneuronal contacts and their characteritics in different brain systems.

History. In ancient times the earliest information on physiology was obtained from the empirical observations of naturalists and physicians and particularly through the dissection of animal and human cadavers. For many centuries the accepted views concerning the body and its functions were those of Hippocrates and Aristotle (fifth and fourth centuries B.C., respectively). Substantial progress in the development of physiology took place after the introduction of vivisection by the Roman physician Galen (second century A.D.). In the Middle Ages, advances in medicine stimulated the development of biology, and the overall progress achieved in the sciences during the Renaissance contributed to the development of physiology.

Physiology as a science was founded by the English physician W. Harvey, whose discovery of the blood circulation in 1628, in the words of F. Engels, made a science of [the] physiology (of man and animals) (Dialektika prirody, 1969, p. 158). Harvey was the first to describe the systemic and pulmonary circulation of the blood and to determine that the heart was the source of blood circulation in the body: he proved that the blood flows from the heart through the arteries and returns to it through the veins. The foundations for the discovery of the blood circulation had been laid by the Belgian anatomist A. Vesalius, the Spanish physician M. Servetus (1553), and the Italian anatomists R. Colombo (1551) and G. Fallopio. The Italian biologist M. Malpighi, who wrote the first description of the capillaries (1661), confirmed the correctness of Harveys description of the blood circulation.

The formulation of the reflex principle in the early 17th century by the French philosopher R. Descartes and in the 18th century by the Czech physician G. Prochaska was a major advance in physiology that helped determine its subsequent materialist trend. According to this principle, any activity of the organism is a response, or reflex, to external influences that is mediated by the central nervous system. Descartes believed that the sensory nerves were propulsive mechanisms that became tense when stimulated and opened valves on the surface of the brain. Animal spirits emerging through these valves proceeded to the muscles and caused them to contract. The discovery of reflexes was the first step in the undermining of the idealist and ecclesiastical viewpoint on the behavior mechanisms of living organisms. Subsequently, in the words of P. K. Anokhin, the reflex principle as dealt with by Sechenov became a weapon in the cultural revolution of the 1860s, and 40 years later Pavlov used it to revolutionize current theories concerning the psyche (Ot Dekarta do Pavlova, 1945, p. 3).

Methods of research that utilized the achievements of physics and chemistry were introduced into physiology in the 18th century. The concepts and methods of mechanics were widely applied. As early as the late 17th century, the Italian naturalist G. A. Borelli used the laws of mechanics to explain the movements of animals and the mechanisms of respiratory movements. He also applied the laws of hydraulics to the study of the blood circulation. The English chemist S. Hales determined the intensity of blood pressure in 1733, and the French naturalist R. Reaumur and the Italian naturalist L. Spallanzani studied the chemical mechanisms of digestion. The French chemist A. Lavoisier, while studying the phenomena of oxidation, attempted to explain the respiratory process by means of the principles of chemistry. The Italian anatomist L. Galvani discovered animal electricity, that is, the bioelectric phenomena in the organism.

The study of physiology in Russia began in the first half of the 18th century. A department of anatomy and physiology was established in the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, which was founded in 1725. The departments chairmen, D. Bernoulli, L. Euler, and J. Weitbrecht, studied the biophysics of the blood circulation. The research of M. V. Lomonosov ascribed great importance to the role of chemistry in physiological processes. The faculty of medicine at Moscow University, which was founded in 1755, played a major role in the development of physiology in Russia; S. G. Zybelin was the first at the university to teach physiology, anatomy, and other medical disciplines. An independent department of physiology at Moscow University, headed by M. I. Skiadan and I. I. Vech, was founded in 1776. The first academic dissertation on physiology, dealing with respiration, was completed by F. I. Barsuk-Moiseev in 1794. The St. Petersburg Medical and Surgical Academy (now the S. M. Kirov Military Medical Academy), founded in 1798, was later to contribute significantly to the development of physiology in Russia.

Physiology became independent of anatomy in the 19th century. Factors contributing to the development of physiology included advances in organic chemistry, the discovery of the laws of the conservation and transformation of energy and of the cellular structure of the body, and the formulation of the theory of evolution of organic life.

In the early 19th century it was believed that the chemical compounds in the living organism were fundamentally different from inorganic substances and could not be produced outside the body. In 1828 the German chemist F. Whler synthesized the organic compound urea from inorganic substances, thus undermining the vitalist doctrine of the uniqueness of the bodys chemical compounds. The German chemist J. von Liebig and later many other scientists synthesized organic compounds occurring in the body and studied their structure, thus making it possible to analyze the chemical compounds involved in the formation of organisms and in metabolism. Studies were conducted on the metabolism and energy of living organisms. The physiologists V. V. Pashutin and A. A. Likhachev (Russia), M. Rubner (Germany), and F. Benedict and W. Atwater (USA) devised methods of direct and indirect calorimetry that measured the energy in foods and the energy released by animals and man at rest and at work. Nutritional standards were established by the German physiologist K. von Voit.

Improved methods of electron stimulation and of mechanically recording physiological processes led to increased knowledge of the physiology of nerve and muscle tissue. The German physiologist E. Du Bois-Reymond invented an induction apparatus, and another German physiologist, K. Ludwig, invented (1847) the kymograph, a floating manometer for recording blood pressure, and instruments for recording the rate of the blood flow. The French physiologist E. Marey, the first to use photography to study movements in organisms, invented an apparatus for recording chest movements. The Italian physiologist A. Mosso introduced a device for studying variations in the volume of organs as modified by the circulation of blood, an instrument for measuring fatigue (the ergograph), and a gravimetric device for studying the circulation of the blood.

The principles governing the action of direct current on excitable tissue were discovered by the German physiologist E. Pflger and the Russian physiologist B. F. Verigo, and the rate of the conduction of excitation along nerves was determined by the German physician H. von Helmholtz. Helmholtz also laid the foundation of the theory of vision and hearing. By means of the method of telephonic auscultation of an excited nerve, the Russian physiologist N. E. Vvedenskii studied the physiological properties of excitable tissues and confirmed the rhythmic nature of nerve impulses. He proved that the properties of living tissues change both in response to stimulation and during the course of their own activity. In formulating his theory of the optimum and pessimum of stimulation, Vvedenskii was the first to note the reciprocal relations existing in the central nervous system. He was also the first to study inhibition in its genetic relation to excitation and to discover the phases of transition from excitation to inhibition. The studies on the manifestations of electricity in the body begun by the Italian physiologist L. Galvani and the Italian physicist A. Volta were continued by the German physiologists Du Bois-Reymond and L. Hermann and in Russia by Vvedenskii. The Russian physiologists I. M. Sechenov and V. Ia. Danilevskii were the first to record manifestations of electricity in the central nervous system.

The neural regulation of physiological functions was studied by transecting and stimulating different nerves. The German physiologists and brothers E. H. Weber and E. F. Weber discovered the inhibitory action of the vagus nerve on the heart, the Russian physiologist I. F. Tsion proved that the sympathetic trunk accelerates the heartbeat, and I. P. Pavlov discovered that the sympathetic trunk intensifies the heartbeat. A. P. Valter in Russia and later C. Bernard in France established the existence of sympathetic vasoconstrictive nerves. Ludwig and Tsion found centropetal fibers proceeding from the heart and aorta that alter cardiac function and vascular tone by means of reflexes. F. V. Ovsiannikov discovered the vasomotor center in the medulla oblongata, and N. A. Mislavskii investigated the previously discovered respiratory center in the medulla oblongata.

Beginning in the 19th century, the nervous system was known to possess a trophic function, that is, to influence metabolism and the nutrition of organs. In 1824 the French physiologist F. Magendie described the pathological changes that occur in tissues after the transection of nerves. Bernard observed changes in the carbohydrate metabolism of a part of the medulla oblongata that had been punctured (diabetic puncture, or Bernards puncture). The German physiologist R. Heidenhain discovered that the sympathetic nerves affect the composition of the saliva, and Pavlov detected the trophic action of the sympathetic nerves on the heart.

The reflex theory of nervous activity was further developed in the 19th century. The cerebrospinal reflexes were studied in detail, and the reflex arc was analyzed. The Scottish physiologist C. Bell (1811), Magendie (1817), and the German naturalist J. Mller studied the distribution of motor and sensory fibers in the nerve roots of the spinal cord; their research resulted in the establishment of the Bell-Magendie law. In 1826, Bell hypothesized that afferent influences proceed from muscles during their contraction to the central nervous system, a view that was later developed by A. Folkman and A. M. Filomafitskii. The work of Bell and Magendie stimulated research on the localization of functions in the brain and constituted the foundation of subsequent research on physiological systems that function according to the feedback principle.

In 1842 the French physiologist P. Flourens, after studying the role of the different areas of both the brain and individual nerves in voluntary movements, advanced a concept of the plasticity of nerve centers and the dominant role of the cerebral hemispheres in affecting voluntary movements.

An important contribution to the development of physiology was Sechenovs discovery (1862) of inhibition in the central nervous system. Sechenov demonstrated that under certain conditions stimulation of the brain may cause an inhibitory process that suppresses excitation. Sechenov also discovered the phenomenon of summation in nerve centers. He proved that all conscious and unconscious acts are reflex in origin (Izbr. filos, i psikhologich. proizv., 1947, p. 176), thus helping establish a materialist approach to physiology. Influenced by Sechenovs research, S. P. Botkin and Pavlov introduced the concept of nervism, according to which the nervous system predominates in the regulation of physiological functions and processes in the living organism. The concept of nervism was intended to refute the concept of humoral regulation. The study of the influence of the nervous system on bodily functions has been a major focus of Russian and Soviet physiology.

Beginning in the second half of the 19th century, the role of specific areas of the brain and spinal cord in regulating physiological functions was studied by removing individual parts of the organism. The German physiologists G. Fritsch and E. Hitzig directly stimulated the cerebral cortex in 1870, and another German physiologist, F. Goltz, successfully removed a cerebral hemisphere in 1891. The physiologists V. A. Basov, L. Teary, L. Well, R. Heidenhain and Pavlov studied the functions of the internal organs, particularly those of the digestive organs, by means of experimental surgery. Pavlov formulated the principles governing the functioning of the principal digestive glands, their neural regulation, and the changes occurring in the composition of the digestive juices in relation to the nutritive and nondigestible substances ingested. Pavlov was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1904 for his research in this area, which elucidated the functioning of the digestive apparatus as an integrated system.

A new stage in the development of physiology began in the 20th century, when the earlier, narrowly analytic view of the bodys vital processes gave way to a synthetic view. Soviet and foreign physiology was greatly influenced by the work of Pavlov and his school on higher nervous activity. Pavlovs discovery of conditioned reflexes created an empirical foundation for the study of the psychological processes governing the behavior of animals and man. Pavlovs 35 years of research on higher nervous activity elucidated the physiology of the analyzers and established the types of nervous systems as well as the laws governing the formation and inhibition of conditioned reflexes. He described disturbances of higher nervous activity in experimental neuroses, formulated a cortical theory of sleep and hypnosis, and introduced the concept of the first- and second-signal systems. Pavlovs work formed the materialist basis for later studies on higher nervous activity, as well as the scientific basis of V. I. Lenins theory of reflection.

The English neurophysiologist C. Sherrington made a major contribution to the physiology of the central nervous system by formulating the principles governing the integrative activity of the brain: reciprocal inhibition, occlusion, and the convergence of excitation on individual neurons. Sherrington contributed new information on the interdependence of excitation and inhibition and on the nature and impairment of muscle tone, thus providing a foundation for future research.

The Dutch physiologist R. Magnus studied the postural, or righting, reflexes, which ensure the maintenance of body posture and balance. The Soviet physiologist V. M. Bekhterev demonstrated the role of the subcortical structures in eliciting emotional and motor reactions in animals and man. He also discovered the conduction paths of the spinal cord and brain and elucidated the functions of the thalamus. The Soviet physiologist A. A. Ukhtomskii formulated the theory of the dominant as the leading principle of brain function; this served as an important supplement to existing concepts of the inflexibility of reflex acts and their brain centers. Ukhtomskii discovered that excitation of the brain that is caused by a dominant need both inhibits minor reflexes and results in the intensified dominant activity of these reflexes.

The emphasis on physics in research led to substantial advances in physiology in the 19th century. The use of a string galvanometer by the Dutch physiologist W. Einthoven and later by the Soviet physiologist A. F. Samoilov made it possible to record bioelectric potentials in the human heart. Using electronic amplifiers that intensified weak bioelectric potentials hundreds of thousands of times, the American physician H. Gasser, the English physiologist E. Adrian, and the Russian physiologist D. S. Vorontsov recorded the bioelectric potentials of nerve trunks. The Russian physiologist V. V. Pravdich-Neminskii was the first to record the electric manifestations of cerebral activity by means of electroencephalography. His work was continued and developed by the German physician H. Berger. The Soviet physiologist M. N. Livanov used mathematical methods to analyze the bioelectric potentials of the cerebral cortex, and the English physiologist A. Hill recorded heat production in nerves traversed by waves of excitation.

The study of excitation in nerves by using the methods of physical chemistry began in the 20th century. The ionic theory of excitation was formulated by the Soviet physiologist V. Iu. Chagovets and developed by the German physiologist J. Bernstein, the German physical chemist W. Nernst, and the Soviet physicist P. P. Lazarev. The membrane theory of excitation was developed by the British researchers P. Boyle, E. Conway, A. Hodgkin, A. Huxley, and B. Katz. The Soviet cytophysiologist D. N. Nasonov established the role of cell proteins in the excitation process. Closely associated with research on excitation is the theory of mediators, that is, chemical transmitters of nerve endings. Important research in this area was conducted by the Austrian pharmacologist O. Loewi, by Samoilov, I. P. Razenkov, A. V. Kibiakov, K. M. Bykov, L. S. Shtern, E. B. Babskii, and Kh. S. Koshtoiants (USSR), by W. Cannon (USA), and by B. Mint (France). Existing views on the integrative activity of the nervous system were developed by the Australian physiologist J. Eccles, who formulated the theory of membrane mechanisms of synaptic transmission.

In the mid-20th century the American neuroanatomist H. Magoun and the Italian physiologist G. Moruzzi discovered the nonspecific activating and inhibitory influences of the reticular formation on different areas of the brain. Their studies significantly altered traditional views on the distribution of excitation in the central nervous system and on the mechanisms of cortical and subcortical interrelationships, sleep and wakefulness, anesthesia, the emotions, and motivations. The Soviet physiologist P. K. Anokhin developed these ideas and described the ascending activating influences exerted by the subcortical formations on the cerebral cortex during different types of biological reactions.

The functions of the limbic system were studied in detail by the American physician P. MacLean and the Soviet physiologist I. S. Beritashvili. The role of the limbic system in the regulation of autonomic processes and in the development of emotions, motivation, and memory, as well as the physiological mechanisms of emotions, were studied by the American researchers P. Bard, P. MacLean, D. Lindsley, and J. Olds, the Italian physician A. Zanchetti, the Swiss researchers W. Hess and R. Hunsperger, and the Soviet researchers Beritashvili, Anokhin, A. V. Valdman, N. P. Bekhtereva, and P. V. Simonov. The mechanisms of sleep were analyzed by Pavlov, Hess, Moruzzi, the French neurophysiologist M. Jouvet, and the Soviet researchers F. P. Maiorov, N. A. Rozhanskii, Anokhin, and N. I. Grashchenkov.

New theories on the functioning of the endocrine glands were developed in the early 20th century, and the functional disturbances resulting from injury to these glands were elucidated. New views on the internal environment of the organism and on homeostasis, barrier functions, and integrated neurohumoral regulation were formulated by Cannon and the Soviet researchers L. A. Orbeli, Bykov, Shtern, and G. N. Kassil. Pavlovs theories on the trophic function of the nervous system were developed by the work of Orbeli and his students A. V. Tonkikh and A. G. Ginetsinskii on the adaptative and trophic functions of the sympathetic nervous system and its influence on the skeletal muscles, sensory organs, and central nervous system. Related studies conducted by A. D. Speranskiis school dealt with the influence of the nervous system on pathological processes. Bykov and his followers V. N. Chernigovskii, I. A. Bulygin, A. D. Slonim, I. T. Kurtsin, E. Sh. Airapetiants, A. V. Rikkl and A. V. Solovev formulated a theory of cortical and visceral physiology and pathology. Bykov elucidated the role of conditioned reflexes in the regulation of internal functions.

The physiology of nutrition had made significant progress by the mid-20th century. The expenditure of energy by persons in different occupations was studied and nutritional standards were developed by the Soviet physiologists M. N. Shaternikov and O. P. Molchanova, the German physiologist C. von Voit, and the American physiologist F. Benedict.

The development of space travel and of underwater research is promoting the study of space and underwater physiology. In the second half of the 20th century the physiology of sensory systems has been studied by the Soviet researchers Chernigovskii, A. L. Byzov, G. V. Gershuni, and R. A. Durinian, the Swedish physiologist R. Granit, and the Canadian physiologist V. Amasian. The Soviet physiologist A. M. Ugolev discovered the mechanism of parietal digestion, and the central hypothalamic mechanisms regulating hunger and satiation were discovered by the American physiologist J. Brobeck and the Indian physiologist B. Anand.

Research on vitamins has continued to develop since the 19th century, when the organisms need for these substances in order to function normally was established by the Russian pediatrician N. I. Lunin.

Major advances in the study of cardiac functions have been made in the 20th century by E. Starling and T. Lewis (Great Britain), H. Wiggers (USA), and A. I. Smirnov, G. I. Kositskii, and F. Z. Meerson (USSR). Research on blood vessels has been conducted by H. Hering (Germany), C. Heymans (Belgium), V. V. Parin and Chernigovskii (USSR), and E. Neil (Great Britain). Studies on capillary circulation have been made by the Danish physiologist A. Krogh and the Soviet physiologist A. M. Chernukh. The mechanism of respiration and the transfer of gases by the blood have been studied by J. Barcroft and J. Haldane (Great Britain), D. Van Slyke (USA), and E. M. Kreps (USSR). The mechanisms that regulate kidney function have been elucidated by the English physiologist A. Cushny and the American pharmacologist A. Richards. The Soviet physiologists Orbeli and A. I. Karamian systematized the evolutionary laws of neural functions and the physiological mechanisms of behavior. The Canadian pathologist H. Selye formulated (1936) a theory of stress as a nonspecific adaptive reaction to external and internal stimuli that significantly influenced the development of physiology and medicine.

The systemic approach to physiology was widely used beginning in the 1960s. According to Anokhins theory of functional systems, the bodys organs become selectively involved in systemic organizations that facilitate the organisms adaptation to the environment. Systemic mechanisms of brain activity are studied by a number of Soviet physiologists, including M. N. Livanov and A. B. Kogan.

Recent trends and objectives. A major goal of modern physiology is to elucidate the mechanisms of mental activity in animals and man in order to devise effective means of preventing mental and neurological diseases. Toward this end, research is conducted on the functional differences between the right and left cerebral hemispheres and on the complex neuronal mechanisms of the conditioned reflex. Brain functions in man are studied by means of implanted electrodes, and psychopathological syndromes are artificially induced in animals.

Analysis of the molecular mechanisms of nervous excitation and muscular contraction makes it possible to elucidate the selective permeability of cell membranes, to create laboratory models of such membranes for purposes of research, and to understand the mechanism by which substances are transferred across cell membranes. Such analysis also elucidates the role of neurons, groups of neurons, and glial elements in the integrative activity of the brain, and particularly in the processes of memory. Research on the different levels of the central nervous system elucidates their function in the emergence and maintenance of emotional states. Continued study of the perception, transmission, and analysis of information by the bodys sensory systems will contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms of speech formation and perception and of the recognition of visual images and acoustic and tactile signals.

Another area of study is the physiology of the movements and compensatory mechanisms governing the restoration of motor functions after injury to the musculoskeletal and nervous systems. Research is being conducted on the central mechanisms regulating the bodys autonomic functions, on the adaptive and trophic influences exerted by the autonomic nervous system, and on the structure and functions of the autonomic ganglia. Studies on respiration, blood circulation, digestion, the metabolism of water and salt, thermoregulation, and the activity of the endocrine glands are elucidating the physiological mechanisms of the visceral functions. The implantation of artificial organs such as the heart, kidneys, and liver requires elucidating the mechanisms of their functioning within the organism.

Physiology also deals with problems directly related to medicine, for example, the role of emotional stress in the origin of cardiovascular diseases and neuroses. Developmental physiology and gerontology have become important branches of physiology, and specialists in the physiology of farm animals study ways of increasing productivity.

Also under study are the evolutionary history of the nervous systems morphological and functional organization and of the bodys somatic and autonomic functions. Other research focuses on ecologically determined physiological changes in man and animals. Scientific and technological progress has made it necessary to investigate mans adaptation to working and living conditions as well as the effect of such factors as emotional stress and climatic conditions. A major task of physiology is the elucidation of the mechanisms of human resistance to stress. By means of robots and the simulation of physiological functions, mans adaptation to space and to underwater conditions is investigated. In related studies, conducted with the aid of computers, subjects maintain their own physiological functions at a certain level regardless of the action of external influences. New means are being devised, and existing ones improved, for protection against environmental pollution, electromagnetic fields, barometric and gravitational pressure, and other physical factors.

Scientific institutions and organizations. Major centers of physiological research in the USSR include the I. P. Pavlov Institute of

Physiology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in Leningrad, the Institute of Higher Nervous Activity of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in Moscow, the I. M. Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in Leningrad, the P. K. Anokhin Institute of Normal Physiology of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR in Moscow, and the Institute of General Pathology and Pathological Physiology of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR in Moscow. Other important centers of physiological research are the Brain Institute of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR in Moscow, the A. A. Bogomolets Institute of Physiology of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR in Kiev, the Institute of Physiology of the Academy of Sciences of the Byelorussian SSR in Minsk, the I. S. Beritashvili Institute of Physiology in Tbilisi, the L. A. Orbeli Institute of Physiology in Yerevan, the A. I. Karaev Institute of Physiology in Baku, the Institute of Physiology in Tashkent, the Institute of Physiology in Alma-Ata, the A. A. Ukhtomskii Institute of Physiology in Leningrad, the Institute of Neurocybernetics in Rostov-on-Don, and the Institute of Physiology in Kiev.

The I. P. Pavlov All-Union Physiological Society, founded in 1917, has major branches in Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev, and other cities in the USSR. A department of physiology founded within the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in 1963 directs the work of the institutes of physiology attached to the academy and to the All-Union Physiological Society. About ten physiological journals are published. Teaching and research are conducted at sub-departments of physiology at universities and at higher educational institutions of medicine, pedagogy, and agriculture.

International physiological congresses have been held trienni-ally since 1889, with two interruptions of seven and nine years owing to World War I and World War II, respectively. A list of the international physiological congresses is given in Table 1.

The International Union of Physiological Sciences (IUPS), founded in 1970, publishes the IUPS Newsletter. In the USSR, physiological congresses have been held since 1917. A list of the physiological congresses held in the USSR is given in Table 2.

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Physiology | Article about Physiology by The Free Dictionary

Molecular & Integrative Physiology | University of Michigan …

September 01, 2015 By: BoicepSip Category: Physiology

Our department is built on the proud history of nearly 130 years, making it one of the oldest departments of physiology in the United States. Our missions are to enhance understanding of the function of molecules, cells, tissues and organisms with an emphasis on their relation to human biology and medicine, and to contribute to the training of the next generation of research scientists, physicians and educators.

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Molecular & Integrative Physiology | University of Michigan …

UCLA Physiology Department

September 01, 2015 By: lokkol Category: Physiology

Areas of systems level investigation include the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, endocrine, immune and central nervous systems. We also explore cellular processes such as synaptic transmission, the immune response and muscle excitation-contraction coupling as well as molecular mechanisms of ion channels and transporters. At the level of disease, efforts are focused on spinocerebellar ataxia, epilepsy, blindness, cardiac hypertrophy and failure, diabetes, immune deficiencies, muscular dystrophy, channelopathies, transport deficiencies and others.

Research approaches are multidisciplinary, including electrophysiology and biophysics, molecular, cellular and whole-animal imaging, proteomics and X-ray crystallography Moreover, the Department has a strong track record of being at the forefront of emerging new approaches.

There are active collaborative ties with clinical departments and institutes throughout the David Geffen School of Medicine, including the Cardiovascular Research Laboratory and the Departments of Medicine, Pharmacology, Neurology and Anesthesiology.

Recent Publications of Physiology Faculty

UCLA Physiology Department Open Positions

Assistant Project Scientist

Tenure Track Faculty Position (Cardiovascular Science)

Tenure Track Faculty Position (Neuroscience)

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UCLA Physiology Department

Physiology – Welcome

September 01, 2015 By: Walid Yassin Category: Physiology

Welcome to a modern physiology department with outstanding strengths in molecular, cellular, integrative and translational research that is a dynamic part of the largest medical school in the United States. We have an internationally recognized team of faculty and students dedicated to understanding how genes, proteins, organelles, cells and organ systems function in an integrative fashion. Using innovations which have emerged in recent years our research expands on the knowledge of molecular and cellular physiology to better understand how the integrative systems of the human body function in health and disease. We welcome your interest and invite you to participate in Detroits proud tradition of understanding, building, and repairing complex and interactive machineries.

Detroit Cardiovascular Training Program (An NIHpredoctoral training program)

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Physiology – Welcome

Genetics: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

September 01, 2015 By: painlord2k Category: Genetics

Human beings have cells with 46 chromosomes — 2 chromosomes that determine what sex they are (X and Y chromosomes), and 22 pairs of nonsex (autosomal) chromosomes. Males are “46,XY” and females are “46,XX.” The chromosomes are made up of strands of genetic information called DNA. Each chromosome contains sections of DNA called genes, which carry the information needed by your body to make certain proteins.

Each pair of autosomal chromosomes contains one chromosome from the mother and one from the father. Each chromosome in a pair carries basically the same information; that is, each chromosome pair has the same genes. Sometimes there are slight variations of these genes. These variations occur in less than 1% of the DNA sequence. The genes that have these variations are called alleles.

Some of these variations can result in a gene that is abnormal. An abnormal gene may lead to an abnormal protein or an abnormal amount of a normal protein. In a pair of autosomal chromosomes, there are two copies of each gene, one from each parent. If one of these genes is abnormal, the other one may make enough protein so that no disease develops. When this happens, the abnormal gene is called recessive, and the other gene in the pair is called dominant. Recessive genes are said to be inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.

However, if only one abnormal gene is needed to produce a disease, it leads to a dominant hereditary disorder. In the case of a dominant disorder, if one abnormal gene is inherited from mom or dad, the child will likely show the disease.

A person with one abnormal gene is called heterozygous for that gene. If a child receives an abnormal recessive disease gene from both parents, the child will show the disease and will be homozygous (or compound heterozygous) for that gene.

GENETIC DISORDERS

Almost all diseases have a genetic component. However, the importance of that component varies. Disorders in which genes play an important role (genetic diseases) can be classified as:

A single-gene disorder (also called Mendelian disorder) is caused by a defect in one particular gene. Single gene defects are rare. But since there are about 4,000 known single gene disorders, their combined impact is significant.

Single-gene disorders are characterized by how they are passed down in families. There are six basic patterns of single gene inheritance:

The observed effect of a gene (the appearance of a disorder) is called the phenotype.

In autosomal dominant inheritance, the abnormality or abnormalities usually appear in every generation. Each time an affected woman has a child, that child has a 50% chance of inheriting the disease.

People with one copy of a recessive disease gene are called carriers. Carriers usually don’t have symptoms of the disease. But, the gene can often be found by sensitive laboratory tests.

In autosomal recessive inheritance, the parents of an affected individual may not show the disease (they are carriers). On average, the chance that carrier parents could have children who develop the disease is 25% with each pregnancy. Male and female children are equally likely to be affected. For a child to have symptoms of an autosomal recessive disorder, the child must receive the abnormal gene from both parents. Because most recessive disorders are rare, a child is at increased risk of a recessive disease if the parents are related. Related individuals are more likely to have inherited the same rare gene from a common ancestor.

In X-linked recessive inheritance, the chance of getting the disease is much higher in males than females. Since the abnormal gene is carried on the X (female) chromosome, males do not transmit it to their sons (who will receive the Y chromosome from their fathers). However, they do transmit it to their daughters. In females, the presence of one normal X chromosome masks the effects of the X chromosome with the abnormal gene. So, almost all of the daughters of an affected man appear normal, but they are all carriers of the abnormal gene. Each time these daughters bear a son, there is a 50% chance the son will receive the abnormal gene.

In X-linked dominant inheritance, the abnormal gene appears in females even if there is also a normal X chromosome present. Since males pass the Y chromosome to their sons, affected males will not have affected sons. All of their daughters will be affected, however. Sons or daughters of affected females will have a 50% chance of getting the disease.

EXAMPLES OF SINGLE GENE DISORDERS

Autosomal recessive:

X-linked recessive:

Autosomal dominant:

X-linked dominant:

Only a few, rare, disorders are X-linked dominant. One of these is hypophosphatemic rickets, also called vitamin D -resistant rickets.

CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS

In chromosomal disorders, the defect is due to either an excess or lack of the genes contained in a whole chromosome or chromosome segment.

Chromosomal disorders include:

MULTIFACTORIAL DISORDERS

Many of the most common diseasesare caused byinteractions of several genes and factors in the the environment (for example, illnesses in the mother and medications). These include:

MITOCHONDRIAL DNA-LINKED DISORDERS

Mitochondria are small organisms found in most of the body’s cells. They are responsible for energy production inside cells. Mitochondria contain their own private DNA.

In recent years, many disorders have been shown to result from changes (mutations) in mitochondrial DNA. Because mitochondria come only from the female egg, most mitochondrial DNA-related disorders are passed down from the mother.

Mitochondrial DNA-related disorders can appear at any age. They have a wide variety of symptoms and signs. These disorders may cause:

Some other disorders are also known as mitochondrial disorders, but they do not involve mutations in the mitochondrial DNA. These disorders are usually single gene defects and they follow the same pattern of inheritance as other single gene disorders.

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Genetics: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Ology Genetics – AMNH

September 01, 2015 By: painlord2k Category: Genetics

Photos: DNA, ladybug, brown eye, blue eye, PCR, Gregor Mendel, peas: AMNH; Starfish: courtesy of AMNH Department of Library Services K4508; Perch fish: courtesy of AMNH Department of Library Services PK241; Illustrations: Louis Pappas, Steve Thurston, Eric Hamilton; DNA, nature/nurture: Kelvin Chan Boy at computer: Jim Steck; Fruit fly: courtesy of Flybase

Did you know that DNA carries all the information a cell needs to make you uniquely you? Take a look at the science of where it ALL begins.

Illustrations Steve Gray

Solve genetic riddles as you wind your way through the star-studded park.

Photos: Dr. Ian Wilmut and Dolly; Dolly and her birth mother, courtesy of the Roslin Institute; Illustrations: Clay Meyer

Investigate the how and why of cloning. This Web page helps kids understand cloning and explains some of the ethical issues involved.

Photos: George Barrowclough: courtesy of R.J. Gutierrez; Humpback whales, Howard Rosenbaum: courtesy of Peter J. Ersts, Center for Biodiversity and Conservation, AMNH; Owl: John and Karen Hollingsworth, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Yael Wyner: courtesy of Yael Wyner; Joel Cracraft: courtesy of Joel Cracraft; Sumatran Tiger: courtesy of Jessie Cohen, Smithsonian’s National Zoo; Lemur: courtesy of Duke University Primate Center; Daniela Calcagnotto: Courtesy of Daniela Calcagnotto; Pacu: courtesy of Leonard Lovshin, Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures, Auburn University; St. Vincent parrots, Mike Russello: courtesy of Mike Russello; Illustrations: Louis Pappas, Steve Thurston, Eric Hamilton

Travel around the world with museum scientists: from Madagascar to the Western U.S. to the island of Sumatra in Indonesia.

Photos: George Amato, Lab machines: courtesy of Denis Finnin, AMNH; Caimans: courtesy of Santos Breyer, Crocodilian Photo Gallery; Elephant: courtesy of Jason Lelchuk, AMNH; American Crocodile: courtesy of Julio Caballeros Sigme, Florida Museum of Natural History; Tibetan Antelope: courtesy of George B. Schaller; Products: courtesy of Meg Carlough

Join scientist George Amato on his quest to stop criminals smuggling illegal goods.

All photos: AMNH

Here’s a very cool experiment that just might bring a tear to your eye. Use a blender to separate the DNA from an onion.

Illustrations: Daryl Collins

Find out what makes you different from a snail, a tree, or even your best friend!

Photos: Salmon, Florida Panther: courtesy of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Ruffed lemur: courtesy of Duke University Primate Center; Congo Gorilla: courtesy of AMNH Department of Library Services 1636; Spotted owl: courtesy of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service / photo by J&K Hollingsworth; Sumatran tiger: courtesy of Jessie Cohen, Smithsonian’s National Zoo; Grevy’s zebra: courtesy of AMNH Department of Library Services K10684; Asian Elephant: courtesy of Jason Lelchuk, AMNH; DNA, tongue curling, earlobe, thumb: courtesy of Denis Finnin, AMNH; Dolly: courtesy of the Roslin Institute; Corn, bananas, dog, bird, eye, flowers, buildings, glacier, human, tomato, cupcake, none: AMNH; Guinea pig: courtesy of AMNH Department of Library Services PK326; Mars: courtesy of David Crisp and the WFPC2 Science Team (Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology)/NSSDC and NASA; Dusky Seaside Sparrow: courtesy of P.W. Sykes, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Antelope: courtesy of George B. Schaller; Crocodile: courtesy of Santos Breyer, the Crocodilian Photo Gallery; Sea turtle: courtesy of David Vogel, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Illustrations: Cell, Chromosome, DNA: Stephen Blue; Gene: Kelvin Chan; Mononykus dinosaur: Mick Ellison, AMNH; Woolly Mammoth: courtesy of AMNH Department of Library Services 2431, painting by Charles. R. Knight; Dodo Bird: courtesy of AMNH Department of Library Services 6261, Jean Pretre, from Henri-Marie Ducrotay de Blainville, Nouvelles annales du Museum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris; Sabre tooth tiger: courtesy of AMNH Department of Library Services 1017; painting by Charles R. Knight

Make your opinion count!

Explore the gene scene with these seven books.

Photos: Rob De Salle: courtesy of Denis Finnin, AMNH; Illustrations: Daniel Guidera

Step into the future for a look at what cloning might do for you.

Illustrations: Animals: Steve Thurston; Journal Page: Carl Mehling

Want to figure out the wildlife in your area and the impact of genetics? Start a field journal, and track how your favorite critter looks and behaves.

Illustrations: Eric Hamilton

Send a note to a friend with these colorful letterheads.

Photos: Physics Notebook, Questions, Molecular Lab, Dog: AMNH; Narwhal: courtesy of AMNH Department of Library Services, 26177, Photo by A.S. Rudland and Sons, copied by Thos. Lunt, Feb. 19, 1910 from “The Living Animals of the World,” Hutchinson and Co., London; Fruit fly: courtesy of AMNH Department of Library Services 101321; The Genomic Revolution AMNH exhibit pictures: Preparation, DNA Learning Lab, Nature/Nurture wall, Yeast: courtesy of Denis Finnin, AMNH; Chimpanzee: courtesy of AMNH Department of Library Services K12658 Salmon: courtesy of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Find out where Rob has followed his born curiosity.

Photos: Rob DeSalle: Physics Notebook, Questions, Molecular Lab, Dog: AMNH; Narwhal: courtesy of AMNH Department of Library Services, 26177, Photo by A.S. Rudland and Sons, copied by Thos. Lunt, Feb. 19, 1910 from “The Living Animals of the World,” Hutchinson and Co., London; Fruit fly: courtesy of AMNH Department of Library Services 101321; The Genomic Revolution AMNH exhibit pictures: Preparation, DNA Learning Lab, Nature/Nurture wall, Yeast: courtesy of Denis Finnin, AMNH; Chimpanzee: courtesy of AMNH Department of Library Services K12658 Salmon: courtesy of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Kids: All people pictures and drawings: courtesy of subjects; Woolly Mammoth: courtesy of AMNH Department of Library Services 2431, painting by Charles. R. Knight Cat: courtesy of subject Farm: AMNH

Find out where Rob, Emily, Logan, and Seth have followed their born curiosity.

Illustrations: Wayne Vincent

What’s the human genome project and what does it mean to you? Toby, Annie, and Claudia uncovered the answers.

Illustrations: Daryl Collins

The next time you eat a tomato, ask yourself: What would it taste like if there were a bit of flounder in it? Learn how scientists are using genetics to change the food you eat.

Photos: Monarch Butterfly, courtesy of AMNH Department of Library Services K14898; Grizzly Bear: courtesy of NPS; Sunflower: courtesy of Bruce Fritz, ARS; Chimpanzee: courtesy of AMNH Department of Library Services K12658; African Elephant: courtesy of Miriam Westervelt, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Apple tree: courtesy of Doug Wilson, USDA; Red flour beetle: courtesy of Cereal Research Centre, AAFC; Brown trout: courtesy of Duane River, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Supplies: AMNH; What to Do: (All photos): AMNH; DNA Model, Lady beetle: courtesy of Scott Bauer, ARS Fish, Daisy: AMNH; What You Need illustrations: Stephen Blue

How can you wear a chimp on your wristwithout getting primate elbow? The answer to this riddle is not as tough as it may seem.

Photos: DNA, AMNH; The Genomic Revolution Exhibit: courtesy of Denis Finnin, AMNH; Gene: AMNH; Dolly: courtesy of the Roslin Institute; Chimpanzee: courtesy of AMNH Department of Library Services K12658

How much do you know about what makes you you? Test your genetics knowledge with this interactive quiz.

Photos: People: courtesy of Denis Finnin, AMNH; Illustrations: Louis Pappas, Steve Thurston, Eric Hamilton; People: Jim Steck Genetics illustrations: Stephen Blue

Zoom inside your cells for a fascinating look at chromosomes, DNA, genes, and more!

Photos: Frozen Tissue Collection: All specimens from the Frozen Tissue Collection, frilled leaf-tailed gecko: AMNH / Denis Finnin cryovat, test tubes: AMNH / Craig Chesek humpback whale: John J. Mosesso / NBII coyote: AMNH; Gold: gold sheet mouflon, miniature sacrificial figurine, Spanish coins: AMNH / Craig Chesek Inca necklace: AMNH / Denis Finnin Eureka Bar: AMNH / Roderick Mickens astronaut in space: NASA computer chip: stock.xchng; Leeches: jaw: Eye of Science / Photo Researchers, Inc. bite mark: Geoff Tompkinson / Photo Researchers, Inc. leech feeding on snail: Edward Hendrycks, reproduce courtesy of the Canadian Museum of Nature leeches before and after blood meal, leeches on foot, American Medicinal Leech, Malagobdella vagans, Mark Siddall in swamp: courtesy of Mark Siddall; Dioramas: AMNH / Roderick Mickens; Mythic Creatures: All photos courtesy of American Museum of Natural History; Vietnam: pygmi loris, Tonkin snub-nosed monkey: Tilo Nadler / Frankfurt Zoological Society Oriental pit viper: Robert W. Murphy / Royal Ontario Museum scientists with camera trap: Kevin Frey / AMNH Center for Biodiversity and Conservation saola: European Commission, Social Forestry and Nature Conservation

Put your viewing skills to the test with this mystery photo challenge.

Tracking a gorilla can get hairy. Literally. Just ask George Amato.

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Ology Genetics – AMNH

Home > Genetics | Yale School of Medicine

September 01, 2015 By: admin Category: Genetics

The information in genomes provides the instruction set for producing each living organism on the planet. While we have a growing understanding of the basic biochemical functions of many of the individual genes in genomes, understanding the complex processes by which this encoded information is read out to orchestrate production of incredibly diverse cell types and organ functions, and how different species use strikingly similar gene sets to nonetheless produce fantastically diverse organismal morphologies with distinct survival and reproductive strategies, comprise many of the deepest questions in all of science. Moreover, we recognize that inherited or acquired variation in DNA sequence and changes in epigenetic states contribute to the causation of virtually every disease that afflicts our species. Spectacular advances in genetic and genomic analysis now provide the tools to answer these fundamental questions.

Members of the Department of Genetics conduct basic research using genetics and genomics of model organisms (yeast, fruit fly, worm, zebrafish, mouse) and humans to understand fundamental mechanisms of biology and disease. Areas of active investigation include genetic and epigenetic regulation of development, molecular genetics, genomics and cell biology of stem cells, the biochemistry of micro RNA production and their regulation of gene expression, and genetic and genomic analysis of diseases in model systems and humans including cancer, cardiovascular and kidney disease, neurodegeneration and regeneration, and neuropsychiatric disease. Members of the Department have also been at the forefront of technology development in the use of new methods for genetic analysis, including new methods for engineering mutations as well as new methods for production and analysis of large genomic data sets.

The Department sponsors a graduate program leading to the PhD in the areas of molecular genetics and genomics, development, and stem cell biology. Admission to the Graduate Program is through the Combined Programs in Biological and Biomedical Sciences (BBS).

In addition to these basic science efforts, the Department is also responsible for providing clinical care in Medical Genetics in the Yale New Haven Health System. Clinical genetics services include inpatient consultation and care, general, subspecialty, cancer and prenatal genetics clinics, and clinical laboratories for cytogenetics, DNA diagnostics, and biochemical diagnostics. The Department sponsors a Medical Genetics Residency program leading to certification by the American Board of Medical Genetics. Admission to the Genetics Residency is directly through the Department.

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Home > Genetics | Yale School of Medicine

Genetics articles: The New England Journal of Medicine

September 01, 2015 By: stoommica Category: Genetics

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Genetics articles: The New England Journal of Medicine