Medical Dermatology, Birmingham & Chelsea, AL

November 04, 2015 By: admin Category: Dermatology

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Dermatologists diagnose and treat more than 3,000 different diseases. The Skin Wellness Center of Alabama is equipped to handle any dermatological need you may have. Our medical professionals are dedicated to educating and caring for patients of all ages. By staying highly aware of the latest, most effective medical and dermatologic developments and utilizing state-of-the-art facilities and equipment, our physicians expertly apply the science of skin care to the art of patient care on a daily basis.

At the Skin Wellness Center of Alabama we are committed to helping you to achieve healthy, glowing skin, hair and nails. But before your skin can shine its brightest, it must be fresh and disorder-free. Our goal is to give you the building blocks to maintain healthy, lasting skin that will carry you through life. Here you can learn about the most common skin conditions, their causes and how we can help you manage them.

There are various dermatological treatments offered at the Skin Wellness Center of Alabama. With our vast menu of services, we are better able to meet the needs of our valued clients in ways most suitable to their circumstances. Some skin conditions may be treated with subcision. This treatment is to cut scarring attachments that lead to dimpling on the surface of the skin.

Subcision is carefully performed by one of our medical professionals after the area has been thoroughly numbed. Treatment is completed with a small-gauge, sharp-blade needle, modified specifically for this purpose. The arrow tip of the needle successfully reaches the second layer of skin, the dermis, where a scar is attached. Once within the area of the scar, we use precise, gentle motions to reach the outer edges of scar tissue.

Patient comfort is our priority when performing dermatological treatments. We make every effort to facilitate pain-free experiences, and ensure local anesthetic has had time to work before beginning the subcision procedure. We encourage communication throughout continue reading>

Cryoshape is the latest, most cutting-edge treatment modality for keloid scars. Keloids form when the skin lacks the necessary signals to stop healing and wounds continue to heal beyond the original injury. Keloid scars can be itchy, painful, disfiguring and restrictive. They are hereditary and difficult to treat.

Traditional therapies are only marginally successful and can require multiple sessions of injections, radiation and excision. Cryoshape is the first new treatment for keloids in over twenty years. It incorporates an older dermatological procedure, cryotherapy, but delivers the cooling in a more comprehensive, effective manner. Typically, only one treatment is required and the results are consistent and cosmetically pleasing.

Cryoshape is minimally invasive and requires no surgery and only local anesthesia. Because the procedure is performed with minimal tenderness and discomfort, patients leave the office the same day with little recovery time. Most importantly, in more than 97% of cases, no keloid scar recurrence was seen. Multiple keloid scars can be treated in a single session and no worsening of the scar has continue reading>

The goal at Skin Wellness Center of Alabama is to provide dermatological care based on specific needs. Each patient is different and is best served by treatment plans devised accordingly. Because we see the individual, we have assembled a number of dermatology services to help our patients handle their skin concerns.

Cryosurgery has been used in the medical field for the past century. In dermatology, this type of treatment can address a variety of benign skin concerns. The medical professionals at Skin Wellness Center of Alabama have mastered the techniques of cryosurgery, assuring our patients safety and comfort throughout treatment. Originally, cryosurgery was performed with a dip and touch method, using a sterile cotton tip. Today, dermatologists may apply this type of therapy using a paintbrush method, the spiral or rotary pattern, or the spot freeze technique.

A quick, convenient treatment, cryosurgery may be used in the treatment of:

There are advantages to cryosurgery for the treatment of benign skin lesions, such as the length of time needed for treatment. Because there is no need for local continue reading>

Most of us believe that acne is a disorder that affects only teenagers. Unfortunately, this is not the case. Controlled by oil glands and hormones, acne can also be influenced by other factors including stress, diet and makeup. After an evaluation and discussion, well classify your acne and start you on a regimen tailored specifically for you. Once a regimen has been chosen, its important to note that treating acne is more like a marathon instead of a sprint.

Actinic Keratoses, or AKs, are better classified as precancers. If left alone to grow without treatment, these lesions have the ability to develop into destructive skin cancers that have a small chance of spreading to other parts of the body. The primary cause of AKs is the sun.

Alopecia means hair loss. The word is used to describe any condition that leads to loss of hair on any part of the body. Three of the most common forms are:

Alopecia Areata | Localized hair loss in round or oval areas with an exact cause that is not known, but may be reversible.

Central Centrifugal continue reading>

The field of electrosurgery is evolving, and the applications for this technique are rapidly expanding. Incisions done with this technology have less post treatment pain, even when it is used in deep tissue procedures. Reduced blood loss and faster incision times have contributed to a rapid rise in the popularity of this technology.

Dermatologists who stay at the forefront of technological advances have recognized the value of electrosurgery in the treatment of skin conditions. It can destroy skin growths or stop bleeding. It has replaced the use of a scalpel in many procedures including the removal of both malignant and benign skin lesions.

Electrosurgery is frequently used to treat a number of conditions including, but not limited to:

Skin conditions can affect even the most youthful skin, including infants and small children. The Skin Wellness Center of Alabama caters to the dermatology needs of the entire family, including children of all ages. As a child grows and experiences change, so does their skin.

Good skin care begins at an early age with simple sun protection, however sometimes the skin may need extra attention. Many skin conditions are unique to childhood, including molluscum, pityriasis alba, eczema, acne, and many others.

Some of these conditions can be alarming or worrisome, and can not only impact a childs skin, but also their self-esteem. The medical providers at Skin Wellness Center of Alabama understand the concerns related to these conditions and are dedicated to providing compassionate care and the most innovative treatments for your child.

Education is the first step to initiate a successful treatment. Therefore, we not only know the importance of patient education, but parent education as well. We will ensure that your childs skin condition, as well as the treatment plan is outlined clearly and a proper follow-up appointment is scheduled before continue reading>

Protein Rich Plasma (PRP) therapy is an exciting non-surgical therapeutic option for patients who require stimulation of hair growth for hair loss conditions.

Recent scientific research and technology recognize PRP as an all-natural medical procedure that uses a patients own cells and performed in physician offices for scalp, skin and hair stimulation.

While the efficacy of the therapy has not been firmly established, many studies are slowly being published on the success of PRP. The safety data, however, are well established.

PRP works by taking advantage of the mesenchymal stem cells, rich in essential and specific growth factors, contained in human blood. It has been used as medical adjunct therapy for over two decades for wound healing and has been used in the fields of oral surgery, neurosurgery and orthopedic surgery. While PRP is in the early stages of scientific research in hair restoration, the results are promising but should not be used to replace traditionally therapies. Rather, PRP is thought to enhance the effects seen with DHT blockers (finasteride) and Minoxidil. In addition to hair restoration, PRP is widely used to stimulate continue reading>

Skin lesions do not have to be malignant to be concerning. If you have a skin tag, cyst, or other lesion that is causing you distress, the medical professionals at Skin Wellness Center of Alabama can help you with the appropriate method of removal. Our patients are treated with plans tailored to fit their specific needs. In some situations, the surgical excision of skin lesions will be recommended.

To remove a problematic skin lesion, your board certified dermatologist begins making an outline of the treatment area with a skin-appropriate pen. A small amount of healthy skin is typically included within the margins of a treatment area. This is done to ensure that all affected tissue is removed. In cancerous lesions, it is difficult to visualize the extent of cancer cells. Taking a bit of normal-appearing skin is a way of obtaining predictable results.

Surgical excision is a procedure performed under local anesthesia. Following an injection of numbing medication, there should be no sensations of pain throughout the procedure, in which a precise incision is made around the lesion. Our incisions are made continue reading>

On every Thursday of each month, we will be open for appointments until 6:00 pm.

At Skin Wellness Center of Alabama, we offer cutting-edge skin care and dermatology services to our patients in the Greater Birmingham area, including Hoover and Homewood. At our offices in Birmingham & Chelsea, AL, our certified dermatologists are here to listen to your concerns and offer the individualized, high level of patient care you seek. We believe in making care accessible and affordable, and we will go out of our way to accommodate your visit.

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Medical Dermatology, Birmingham & Chelsea, AL


Biology – Wikia

November 04, 2015 By: BoicepSip Category: Biology

What’s new on Biology May 15, 2010 Not much has been happening here lately. It seems a user named Davichito adopted this wiki in 2008, but since then there has been minimal activity. I am working to revitalize this wiki. If you’d like to help out… I’d appreciate it. Elainaph 04:13, May 15, 2010 (UTC) Helping out

To write a new article, just enter the article title in the box below.

Deoxyribonucleic acid, is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and some viruses. It is made of repeated blocks (polymers) called nucleotides, which together form the shape of a double helix. Each nucleotide has a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. The nitrogenous base is the changing element. It can be adenine, cytosine, guanine or thymine. The bases are either purines or pyrimidines. The purine bases are adenine and guanine and the pyrimidines are cytosine and thymine. The sugar is deoxyribose.

Gulf Coast Oil Spill Puts Birds at Risk

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Biology – Wikia


Dayton Skin Care Specialists: Cosmetic Dermatology

November 03, 2015 By: Walid Yassin Category: Dermatology

Years of sun and other environmental factors can take their toll on your skin. Whether you are considering a procedure or are interested in discussing skin care maintenance, we can assist you in developing a realistic plan to achieve your goals.

At Dayton Skin Care Specialists, we offer a comprehensive range of treatments to revitalize your look! Please call 937-293-5567 to schedule your aesthetic and cosmetic services or for a skin care consultation.

Skin rejuvenation can be achieved in a number of ways and the result is a smoother, brighter and more youthful appearance to your skin.

For patients with minimal damage, a good skin care regimen can give significant improvement and is the foundation for long term maintenance. For patients with more damage, more advanced treatments are added to your skin care regimen. These treatments can include:

Dayton Skin Care Specialists offers several types of laser therapy and the most current laser technology to treat the following conditions:

Laser treatments are a relatively quick and painless procedure with little to no downtime.

Chemical Peels have been used for decades to revitalize and resurface skin. They involve applying a chemical solution to remove the damaged outer layers of skin and reveal a younger, clearer, more radiant complexion.

There are different types of facial peels ranging from mild to deep depending on the severity of the skin conditions to be treated. Mild peels usually consist of hydroxy acids (AHA, BHA) while deeper peels often include tricholoracetic acid (TCA).

Chemical Peels are effective in treating:

After treatment, your skin will look and feel softer, smoother, and more radiant. There is no downtime with a light peel, however you may experience some shedding of the skin similar to a mild sunburn. Medium to deep peels may result in swelling and blisters, followed by a peeling of the skin. This peeling generally lasts up to 1 week. After which your skin will look and feel smoother and tighter. It is essential that you avoid any sun exposure following a peel.

A customized facial will get your out-of shape skin healthy again. At the core of the treatment will be gentle exfoliation to slough away dead skin so that nourishing active ingredients can penetrate to replenish moisture. This revitalizing treatment refines the skin’s texture and evens out skin tone. You will be amazed at how fresh and clean your skin looks and feels. Your aesthetician will customize the facial for your skin type and specific needs.

As we age, our skin changes. Over time, the natural volume of youthful skin begins to diminish as wrinkles and folds form. With injectables and fillers, you don’t have to just sit back and let it happen!

BOTOX Cosmetic is a therapeutic muscle-relaxing agent derived from the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Physicians have utilized BOTOX Cosmetic for years as a cosmetic treatment to correct visible signs of stress and aging.

The contractions and movements of the facial muscles are controlled by signals from nearby nerves. BOTOX Cosmetic simply prevents the muscle from allowing responses to these messages. As a result, the muscle relaxes and the overlying skin remains unwrinkled and smooth.

For more information

Juvederm XC and Juvederm Ultra Plus XC is a smooth gel made of hyaluronic acid, a naturally occurring substance in your skin, which helps to add volume and hydration. Juvderm Ultra is useful in contouring and volumizing facial wrinkles and folds. Juvderm Ultra Plus is a more dense form and has a greater volumizing effect. These products are frequently used in areas of facial tissue where moderate to severe wrinkles and folds occur, most often around the nose and mouth. These fillers work exceptionally well in one of the most despised areas of volume loss: the nasolabial folds, also known as smile lines or parentheses (the creases that run from the bottom of your nose to the corners of your mouth). The injected gel adds immediate volume and restores a smoother appearance to the face. XC is the newest formulation, and stands for eXtra Comfortable. XC includes lidocaine, a local anesthetic that reduces the pain during the procedure.

Our physicians at Dayton Skin Care Specialists can place Juvderm injectable gel under the skin to instantly restore your skin’s volume and smooth away facial wrinkles and folds. Optimal wrinkle smoothing can often be achieved in one treatment setting, and the results last about 9 months to 1 year.

For more information

Traditional dermal fillers address wrinkles, lines and folds; Sculptra Aesthetic works differently. Sculptra is a volumizing filler that replenishes lost volume by gradually stimulating growth of your own natural collagen to treat the underlying causes of facial aging. Sculptra Aesthetic can restore a more youthful, natural look that can last 2 years.

For more information

Restylane is hyaluronic acid gel filler that provides dramatic results for improving the appearance of facial lines, wrinkles, and folds. This is a non-surgical solution to soften facial lines and wrinkles, restore volume and fullness to the skin, plump up lips, fill in scars and soften the appearance of under eye circles. The cosmetic results are visible immediately, bestowing you with a more youthful and invigorated look.

For more information

LATISSE is a prescription medication used to help you grow lashes longer, fuller, and darker. It is the only FDA-approved treatment clinically proven to grow lashes. LATISSE is used once nightly and applied topically to the base of your upper eyelashes, as instructed by your doctor. Your results will then gradually occur. In as little as 4 weeks, you may start to see more length. At week 16 you should achieve full growth – This is not an illusion of growth, it’s real lash growth.

LATISSE makes lash growth possible because of its active ingredient: bimatoprost. Although the precise mechanism of action is unknown, LATISSE is believed to affect the growth (anagen) phase of the eyelash hair cycle in two ways: first, it increases the length of this phase, and second, it increases the number of hairs in this growth phase.

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Dayton Skin Care Specialists: Cosmetic Dermatology


Dr George Cotsarelis: Hair Follicle Stem Cells & Skin …

November 02, 2015 By: stoommica Category: Skin Stem Cells

Presented at the 8th World Congress for Hair Research (2014) Jeju Island, South Korea.

Understanding molecular mechanisms for regeneration of hair follicles during wound healing provides new opportunities for developing treatments for hair loss and other skin disorders. We show that fibroblast growth factor 9 (fgf9) modulates hair follicle regeneration following wounding of adult mice. Inhibition of fgf9 during wound healing severely impedes this wound-induced hair follicle neogenesis (WIHN). Conversely, overexpression of fgf9 results in a 2-3 fold increase in the number of neogenic hair follicles. Remarkably, gamma-delta T cells in the wound dermis are the initial source of fgf9. Deletion of fgf9 gene in T cells in Lck-Cre;floxed fgf9 results in a marked reduction in WIHN. Similarly, mice lacking gamma-delta T cells demonstrate impaired follicular neogenesis.

We found that fgf9, secreted by gamma-delta T cells, initiates a regenerative response by triggering Wnt expression and subsequent Wnt activation in wound fibroblasts. Employing a unique feedback mechanism, activated fibroblasts then express fgf9, thus amplifying Wnt activity throughout the wound dermis during a critical phase of skin regeneration. Strikingly, humans lack a robust population of resident dermal gamma-delta T cells, potentially explaining their inability to regenerate hair.

These findings which highlight the essential relationship between the immune system and tissue regeneration, establish the importance of fgf9 in hair follicle regeneration and suggests its applicability for therapeutic use in humans.

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Dr George Cotsarelis: Hair Follicle Stem Cells & Skin …


Agnosticism – Victorian Web

November 02, 2015 By: BoicepSip Category: Agnosticism

[Disponible en espaol]

his word, which has in the twentieth century come to signify little more than passive disbelief, was invented by Thomas Henry Huxley at Cambridge in the 1860s. According to Charles Blinderman, Professor Emeritus at Clark University, “The word seems to have been invented by him towards the end of the ’60s, at an early meeting of the Metaphysical Society. He did not use the term until post-1870.” Huxley, Darwin’s great advocate, coined the term, he says, because everyone else was an “-ist” of one kind or another, and he had no label to apply to his own beliefs. He meant to distinguish himself from those whose faith provided answers to the most profound questions:

Does God exist? How can we know Him? (Why isn’t He revealed more unambiguously in the scriptures?) Why would He create evil, and why would He allow the good to suffer and the wicked to flourish? Does He intervene miraculously in this world?

Thomas Henry Huxley. Portrait bust in Natural History Museum, London. Photograph by GPL.

He found that he could not answer those questions. Furthermore, he came to believe that no one could, without resorting to a knowledge (or gnosis) which goes beyond reason. Huxley, we must remember, was one of the first scientists to think of science as his profession; before the Victorian period, most scientific data was collected by vicars with time on their hands. As a professional scientist, Huxley insisted on reason and the empirical method as the only properly scientific way of knowing this world. For him faith meant believing what is literally incredible (i.e., unreasonable), and thus was impossible for a scientist. In dealing logically with the unknown, one may infer only phenomena like those he already understands. At first he believed that any faith involved bad logic (see Jean-Paul Sartre on “Bad Faith”), but later retreated from this position. Other agnostics (like Leslie Stephen, George Eliot, and W.K. Clifford) have been very willing to take up this position, however. Huxley always insisted that there was no such thing as organized Agnosticism, that as far as he was concerned the term described only his own beliefs. But to a large extent this child outgrew its parent.

The distinguishing characteristic of Victorian unbelief was the degree to which it became an alternative to traditional religion, and when men like Leslie Stephen and W.K. Clifford began calling themselves Agnostics, Agnosticism achieved the kind of success which Comte had tried to create for Positivism (which Huxley had dismissed as “Catholicism minus Christianity”). For the first time, men and women who could not accept the dogmas required by religions could avail themselves of a body of logical argument. By 1884, they even had their own journal, the Agnostic Annual.

Those who attacked Huxley and agnosticism tended to ignore the careful distinctions which he made, lumping agnostics in with atheists, materialists, and other “infidels.” Taken in addition to the very traditional and conservative morals of the first Agnostics, who were careful to comport themselves like model middle-class Victorians, the distinctions are important to an explanation of the movement’s influence. Where the atheist says that God does not exist, the agnostic says that reason can never be used to prove the existence of a being who transcends reason, and whether or not He exists, He does not intervene in human affairs, making speculation about His existence moot. We are on our own.

Twentieth-century thinkers, especially existentialists, have used agnosticism as a jumping-off point for their own philosophies, and the imprecision with which the term is used these days is a measure of its success. Much of that success is due to Huxley’s creation of the name. “Agnosticism” has a cachet which neither “rational nonbelief” nor any other phrase could approximate.

Charles Blinderman, private letter, 1 July 2001. [In his letter Dr. Blindermin also points out that some “historians claim that Lady Burton used ‘agosticism’ before Huxley.” Whether Huxley borrowed the term from her, or more likely independently coined it, his influence made the term current.]

Victorian Web


Created 1987; last modified 1 July 2001

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Agnosticism – Victorian Web


Microbiology Journals | Peer Reviewed | High Impact …

November 02, 2015 By: painlord2k Category: Microbiology

Impact Factor: 0.7* Microbiology and clinical science are interconnected by the pathological conditions caused by microbial pathogens requiring clinical detection and treatment. Understanding such microbe induced pathological conditions demand the detection of clinical manifestation and prescribing proper therapeutic approaches. Clinical Microbiology is an open access journal that caters reliable information for clinical microbiologists, and others in the form of original articles, review articles, case reports, short communications etc. and would like to disseminate knowledge through high impact articles in microbiology.Excellent quality submissions are welcome for maintaining the highest quality of the journal and to attain high impact factor. Studies in the broad area of microbial pathogens and associated disease condition such as molecular understanding of the pathogen including structure, function, molecular mechanism of invasion, detection, techniques and assays used for diagnosis, pathogen targeting with different therapeutic approaches are within the scope of this journal. Clinical Microbiology: Open Access includes a wide range of fields under its discipline to create a resource platform for the authors to make their contribution towards the journal and the editorial office promises a peer review process for the submitted manuscripts for the quality of publishing. Clinical Microbiology: Open Access is using Editorial Manager System to attain the quality for review process. Editorial Manager is an online manuscript submission, review and tracking system used by most of the best open access journals. Review process is performed by the editorial board members of Clinical Microbiology: Open Access or by outside experts in the relevant scientific field. Approval of at least two independent reviewers followed by editor’s approval is mandatory for acceptance of any manuscript. Authors are requested to submit their valuable contributions at or send as an e-mail attachment to the Editorial Office at

OMICS International organizes 1000+ conferences every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from more than 1000 scientific societies and publishes 700+ open access journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Microbiology is the study of microscopic organisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells). Microbiology encompasses numerous sub-disciplines including virology, mycology, parasitology, and bacteriology. Although microbiology is a relatively young science it has had an enormous impact on our health and wellbeing. Without vaccines and antibiotics people would still be struggling to contend with epidemics of infectious disease and would be vulnerable to relatively minor infections.

Related Journals of Microbiology Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis, Infectious Diseases & Therapy, Advances in Antibiotics & Antibodies, Applied Microbiology: Open Access, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Molecular Microbiology, Clinical Microbiology Reviews, Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

STD stands for sexually transmitted Diseases or also known as Sexually transmitted infections. These are the infections commonly spread by sex (vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex). These infections dont cause any symptoms which causes great risk. Some of the common example of STDs are: Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, HIV/AIDS, Syphilis, Bacterial Vaginosis, Herpes, Scabies, Hepatitis B & C, etc.

Related Journals of STD Infectious Diseases and Diagnosis, Medical Mycology: Open Access, Virology & Mycology, Infectious Diseases and Treatment, International Journal of STD and AIDS, AIDS Patient Care and STDs, Archives of STD/HIV Research, AIDS/STD health promotion exchange, Current HIV/AIDS Reports, Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS, Neurobehavioral HIV Medicine

Antimicrobials is an agent that kills microorganisms or inhibits their growth. Antimicrobial medicines can be grouped according to the microorganisms they act primarily against. For example, antibacterials are used against bacteria and antifungals are used against fungi. They can also be classified according to their function. Agents that kill microbes are called microbicidal, while those that merely inhibit their growth are called biostatic. The use of antimicrobial medicines to treat infection is known as antimicrobial chemotherapy, while the use of antimicrobial medicines to prevent infection is known as antimicrobial prophylaxis.

Related Journals of Antimicrobials Advances in Antibiotics & Antibodies, Applied Microbiology: Open Access, Emerging Infectious Diseases, Infectious Diseases and Diagnosis, Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, Microbes and Infection, Gut Microbes, Microbes and Environments, Beneficial microbes, Emerging Microbes and Infections

Review in clinical microbiology includes extensive study about the specific or vast area of the microbial diseases and their causing agents. There is increasingly large number of microbial diseases causing many ailments in humans as well as animals. Hence, there is a need of studying various agents to understand them better.

Related Journals of Clinical Microbiology Emerging Infectious Diseases, Infectious Diseases and Diagnosis, Medical Mycology: Open Access, Virology & Mycology, Reviews FEMS Microbiology Reviews, Clinical Microbiology Reviews, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Microbiology and Infection, Clinical Microbiology Newsletter, Archives of Clinical Microbiology

Now days due to mutation and continuous adaptability of microbes to the changing environment there are vast number of diseases that are to be studied for betterment of the humankind. Research mainly includes studying various aspects of microbes including virulence factor of the microbe.

Related Journals of Clinical Microbiology Research Advances in Antibiotics & Antibodies, Applied Microbiology: Open Access, Emerging Infectious Diseases, Infectious Diseases and Diagnosis, African Journal of Microbiology Research, European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Clinical Microbiology and Infection, Supplement, Journal of Clinical Research

Hepatitis C is an infectious disease affecting primarily the liver, caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). In this infection scarring of liver starts in the initial stage leads ultimately to cirrhosis.It is spread by blood-to-blood contact associated with intravenous drug use, poorly sterilized medical equipment, and transfusions.Hepatitis C virus infection can last a lifetime and lead to serious liver problems, including cirrhosis (scarring of the liver) or liver cancer.

Related Journals of Hepatitis C Applied Microbiology: Open Access, Emerging Infectious Diseases, Infectious Diseases and Diagnosis, Medical Mycology: Open Access, Journal of Viral Hepatitis, Hepatitis Monthly, Viral Hepatitis Reviews, Current Hepatitis Reports, Hepatitis B Annual, Hot Topics in Viral Hepatitis

A genus of DNA-containing viruses including the papilloma and wart viruses of humans and other animals. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus from the papillomavirus family that is capable of infecting humans. Like all papillomaviruses, HPVs establish productive infections only in keratinocytes of the skin or mucous membranes.. Genital Human Papillomavirus infection is primarily transmitted by genital contact, usually (but not necessarily) through sexual intercourse.

Related Journals of PapillomavirusPapillomavirus Report, Virus Research, Advances in Virus Research, Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses, Voprosy Virusologii, Viruses

It is a pharmaceutical prepration used to treat or prevent fungal infections like Mycosis (fungal infection of animals including humans), Athlete’s foot, Dermatophytosis , Candidiasis and many other serious systemic infections. Fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole inhibit cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of ergosterol, which is required for fungal cell membrane structure and function.

Related Journals of Antifungals Infectious Diseases & Therapy, Advances in Antibiotics & Antibodies, Applied Microbiology: Open Access, Emerging Infectious Diseases, Fungal Genetics and Biology, Fungal Biology, Fungal Diversity, Fungal Biology Reviews, Fungal Ecology, Current Fungal Infection Reports, Journal of Antibacterial and Antifungal Agents, Journal of Invasive Fungal Infections

Opportunistic Infections is an infection caused by bacterial, viral, fungal, or protozoan pathogens that take advantage of a host with a weakened immune system.These types of infections occur very frequently and are very severe. People living with HIV/AIDS can face serious health threats from these opportunistic infections. Most life-threatening opportunistic infections occur when your CD4 count is below 200 cells/mm3.

Related Journals of Opportunistic Infections Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis, Infectious Diseases & Therapy, Advances in Antibiotics & Antibodies, Applied Microbiology: Open Access, Sexually Transmitted Infections, Surgical Infections, Seminars in Respiratory Infections, Infections in Medicine, Emerging Microbes and Infections, CME Bulletin Sexually Transmitted Infections and HIV

Clinical microbiology is the adaptation of microbiological techniques to the study of the etiological agents of infectious disease. In this one can explore nature of infectious disease and test the ability of various antibiotics to inhibit or kill the isolated microorganisms. The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites that are not normally present within the body is called infection.

Related Journals of Clinical Microbiology and Infection Infectious Diseases and Diagnosis, Medical Mycology: Open Access, Virology & Mycology, Infectious Diseases and Treatment, Clinical Microbiology and Infection, Clinical Microbiology and Infection, Supplement, Clinical Microbiology Reviews, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Archives of Clinical Microbiology

Clinical microbiologists are medical workers who perform laboratory research. They study microscopic organisms, like bacteria and fungi, often to gain knowledge about fighting and preventing diseases. Clinical Microbiologist works with healthcare teams, including public health officials, to improve processes to diagnose and control infectious diseases with a strong emphasis on effective communication at all levels.

Related Journals of Clinical Microbiologist Applied Microbiology: Open Access, Infectious Diseases & Therapy, Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis, Virology & Mycology, African Journal of Microbiology Research, European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, FEMS Microbiology Reviews, Clinical Microbiology Reviews, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Microbiology and Infection

Manual of Clinical Microbiology includes the study of all the aspect of clinical microbiology quoted at one place. It helps in studying various aspects and submitting novel research to a common platform.

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Clinical practice guidelines are an important outgrowth of the concept of evidence-based medicine. A number of professional organizations have developed clinical practice guidelines that directly affect the practice of diagnostic microbiology and immunology. The goal of these guidelines is the standardization of selected aspects of medical care to ensure both high quality and cost-effectiveness.

Related Journals of Clinical Microbiology Guidelines Advances in Antibiotics & Antibodies, Applied Microbiology: Open Access, Emerging Infectious Diseases, Infectious Diseases and Diagnosis, Treatment guidelines from the Medical Letter, Report on medical guidelines & outcomes research, Clinical Microbiology and Infection, Clinical Microbiology and Infection, Supplement, Clinical Microbiology Reviews, African Journal of Microbiology Research

Clinical Microbiology Case Reports includes the case of the patients that are affected by any of the microbial disease. These may include infections during the treatment (super infection) or post-surgical infections. Post-surgical infections occur due to carelessness of the medical team during operation.

Related Journals of Clinical Microbiology Case Reports Infectious Diseases & Therapy, Advances in Antibiotics & Antibodies, Applied Microbiology: Open Access, Emerging Infectious Diseases, Journal of Medical Case Reports, Medical Mycology Case Reports, Journal of Pediatric Surgery Case Reports, Urology Case Reports, Journal of Dermatological Case Reports., Case Reports in Oncology

The term “nosocomial” comes from two Greek words: “nosus” meaning “disease” + “komeion” meaning “to take care of.” Hence, “nosocomial” should apply to any disease contracted by a patient while under medical care. Nosocomial infections are infections that have been caught in a hospital and are potentially caused by organisms that are resistant to antibiotics

Related Journals of Nosocomial Infection Applied Microbiology: Open Access, Emerging Infectious Diseases, Infectious Diseases and Diagnosis, Medical Mycology: Open Access, Surgical Infections, Current Fungal Infection Reports, Hospital Infection Control, Journal of Invasive Fungal Infections, Journal of Hospital Infection

Molecular pathology is an emerging discipline within pathology which is focused in the study and diagnosis of disease through the examination of molecules within organs, tissues or bodily fluids. Molecular pathology shares some aspects of practice with both anatomic pathology and clinical pathology, molecular biology, biochemistry, proteomics and genetics, and is sometimes considered a “crossover” discipline. It is multi-disciplinary in nature and focuses mainly on the sub-microscopic aspects of disease. A key consideration is that more accurate diagnosis is possible when the diagnosis is based on both the morphologic changes in tissues (traditional anatomic pathology) and on molecular testing

Related Journals of Molecular Pathogenesis Infectious Diseases and Diagnosis, Medical Mycology: Open Access, Virology & Mycology, Infectious Diseases and Treatment, Microbial Pathogenesis, Pathogenesis, Pathogens and Disease, Pathogens and Global Health, Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, Opportunistic Pathogens, Gut Pathogens

Staphylococcal is is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria. Infection with one of the Staphylococcal bacteria. Staph infection can cause pus-filled abscesses on the skin or internal organs, and can migrate through the blood to infect the heart, brain, and other areas. Skin infections are the most common. They can look like pimples or boils. They may be red, swollen and painful, and sometimes have pus or other drainage. They can turn into impetigo, which turns into a crust on the skin, or cellulitis, a swollen, red area of skin that feels hot.

Related Journals of Staphylococcal Infections Advances in Antibiotics & Antibodies, Applied Microbiology: Open Access, Emerging Infectious Diseases, Infectious Diseases and Diagnosis, International Journal of Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases, Journal of Antibacterial and Antifungal Agents, Surgical Infections, Current Fungal Infection Reports, Hospital Infection Control

In response to the changing environment, new varieties of mutant strains of microbes are developing. These mutant microbes have better adaptability and life cycle than their previous strains. These are called new microbes. These new microbes are responsible for the development of new diseases and hence there is a need of studying these extensively to prevent human sufferings.

Related Journals of New Microbes Advances in Antibiotics & Antibodies, Applied Microbiology: Open Access, Emerging Infectious Diseases, Infectious Diseases and Diagnosis, Microbes and Infection, Gut Microbes, Microbes and Environments, Beneficial microbes, Emerging Microbes and Infections

Infectious diseases have always been a challenge to humankind and still pose a continuous threat. Some of the disease have been controlled and eradicated (smallpox) but, many of the new infectious diseases continue to pose threat (eg. West nile fever, MERS). Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is an illness caused by a virus (more specifically, a coronavirus) called Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). MERS affects the respiratory system (lungs and breathing tubes). Most MERS patients developed severe acute respiratory illness with symptoms of fever, cough and shortness of breath. About 3-4 out of every 10 patients reported with MERS have died.

Related Journals of New Infections Advances in Antibiotics & Antibodies, Applied Microbiology: Open Access, Emerging Infectious Diseases, Infectious Diseases and Diagnosis, Infection and Immunity, Microbes and Infection, Journal of Hospital Infection, Journal of Infection, Infection, Genetics and Evolution, Surgical Infections, Journal of Infection in Developing Countries

Antibiotic sensitivity is the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics. Antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) is usually carried out to determine which antibiotic will be most successful in treating a bacterial infection in vivo. Results are commonly reported as the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), which is the lowest concentration of drug that inhibits the growth of the organism.

Related Journals of Antimicrobial Suceptibility Infectious Diseases & Therapy, Advances in Antibiotics & Antibodies, Applied Microbiology: Open Access, Emerging Infectious Diseases, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins

Antimicrobial activity refers to the process of killing or inhibiting the disease causing microbes. Various antimicrobial agents are used for this purpose. Antimicrobial may be anti-bacterial, anti-fungal or antiviral. They all have different modes of action by which they act to suppress the infection.

Related Journals of Antimicrobial Activity Infectious Diseases and Diagnosis, Medical Mycology: Open Access, Virology & Mycology, Infectious Diseases and Treatment, ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, Journal of Physical Activity and Health, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents

An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or inhibits their growth. Antimicrobial medicines can be grouped according to the microorganisms they act primarily against. Antimicrobial agents are of various classes, some of the class includes: beta lactam, cephalosporins, quinolones, tetracyclines, macrolides, sulfonamides, aminoglycosides, etc. These different classes act in a different way and on different kind of bacteria.

Related Journals of Antimicrobial Agents Emerging Infectious Diseases, Infectious Diseases and Diagnosis, Medical Mycology: Open Access, Virology & Mycology, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, International Arabic Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins

Clinical Microbiology: Open Access is supporting “4th International Conference on Clinical Microbiology and Microbial Genomics” (Clinical Microbiology-2015) to be held during October 05-07, 2015 Philadelphia, USA with a theme Identifying the Innovation & Future Directions in Clinical Microbiology.

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Department of Genetic Medicine (Research) | – | Weill …

October 29, 2015 By: heissegiohoft Category: Genetic Medicine

The Department of Genetic Medicine at Weill Cornell Medicine is a highly specialized form of personalized medicine that involves the introduction of genetic material into a patients cells to fight or prevent disease. This experimental approach requires the use of information and data from an individual’s genotype or specific DNA signature, to challenge a disease, select a medication or its dosage, provide a specific therapy, or initiate preventative measures specifically suited to the patient. While this technology is still in its infancy, gene therapy has been used with some success and offers the promise of regenerative cures.

As none of New York’s premier healthcare networks, Weill Cornell Medicine’s genetic research program includes close collaborations with fellow laboratories such as Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center for stem cell projects, Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar and Hamad Medical Corporation in Doha, Qatar and Bioinformatics and Biostatistical Genetics at Cornell-Ithaca.

Department of Genetic Medicine Services

Our translational research program includes many projects in the fields of genetic therapies and personalized medicine, and we arestudying gene therapy for a number of diseases, such as combined immuno-deficiencies, hemophilia, Parkinson’s, cancer and even HIV using a number of different approaches.

Patients interested in gene therapy are invited to participate in our full range of services, including:

-diagnostic testing


-laboratory analysis

-clinical informatics

-managed therapies

In addition, we offer genetic testing to provide options for individuals and families seeking per-emptive strategies for addressing the uncertainties surrounding inherited diseases.The Department of Genetic Medicine at Weill Cornell is a pioneer in the advancement of genetics for patients and their families. These are the strengths we draw upon as we collaborate with our integrated network of partners, including the #1 hospital in New York, New York Presbyterian, to make breakthroughs a reality for our patients.

For more information or to schedule an appointment, call us toll-free at 1-855-WCM-WCMU.

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Nutritional Sciences Undergraduate Program at Rutgers SEBS

October 29, 2015 By: Walid Yassin Category: Nutrition

Program Goal

Through completion of the program in Nutritional Sciences, graduates will be prepared for supervised practice in dietetics, graduate school, or employment by focusing upon the biological, social science, and community principles of food and nutrition coursework.

Nutrition emphasizes the metabolic aspects of how organisms use food. It includes knowledge of how food is digested, absorbed and used for energy and growth as well as how and why nutrient requirements change over the live span and under stress. The field of nutritional sciences encompasses all aspects of an organism’s interaction with food. It includes biochemical, physiologic, molecular, psychological, and cultural aspects of food choice and nutrient metabolism.

The Nutritional Sciences major includes the following options:

All students complete the core requirements in biology and chemistry and then pursue the specific course work pertinent to the option they have chosen. The largest number of students is enrolled in the Dietetics Option which was accredited in October, 2013 at the baccalaureate level for a period of 10 years.

The Dietetics Option of the Nutritional Sciences major is an accredited didactic program in dietetics (DPD) by the Accreditation Council for Education in Nutrition and Dietetics (ACEND) of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 120 South Riverside Drive, Chicago, IL 60606, (800) 877-1600; (312) 899-0040 ext. 5400, email:

The Dietetics option emphasizes nutrition and food service and prepares students for careers as clinical dietitians and nutritionists, educators, health promotion facilitators, and consumer specialists in food and nutrition.

After students have satisfied the core requirements, they can proceed to the dietetics option. Advanced courses stress human nutrition and its application to diet and health. Students take organic chemistry, biochemistry, anatomy, physiology, economics, and statistics. Upon completing the option, students normally apply for a dietetic internship or AP-4 program to prepare for the examination to become a Registered Dietitian (RD). Students are encouraged to download the Student Manual for the Didactic Program in Dietetics.

Upon completion of a dietetic internship, candidates may take the CDR registration examination and, upon passing, use the professional designation, “Registered Dietitian.” Dietetics students are encouraged to see their academic advisor regularly, for assistance in course selection and to discuss academic progress toward their goals. In addition, the dietetics program regularly holds group sessions to inform all dietetics students about changes in ACEND requirements, important dates for submitting applications to internships, computer matching, the Graduate Record Exam (GRE) and any SEBS curriculum changes that may affect the student. Students are informed about these sessions via email and announcements posted in Davison Hall.

The option in Nutrition provides sound training for those intending to go to graduate school in any of the life sciences, conduct biomedical research, or pursue preprofessional (medical, dental) studies. The nutrition option also prepares for entry-level jobs in biomedical research fields in industry and academia.

After completing the core requirements, students who choose the Nutrition option take advanced courses in molecular and cell biology, biochemistry, and physiology, in addition to nutrition courses (e.g., nutritional aspects of energy metabolism; nutritional aspects of protein, vitamin and mineral metabolism).

Course list for Nutrition Option

The option in Food Service Administration is for students who want careers in food service marketing or in managing food service in schools, hotels, restaurants, cafeterias, corporations, hospitals, and long-term care facilities. Students complete the basic core requirements and take advanced courses in quantity food production, managing food-service systems, and institutional organization and management. They supplement this concentration with elective courses in business, agribusiness, and food science.

Course list for Food Service Administration Option

This option prepares professionals to work in food and food related industries at the interface of nutrition, food, and business. The fundamentals of nutrition, the science of food, and business prepare students for positions in test kitchens of food companies, product development in the food industry, public relations, pharmaceutical companies, the supermarket industry, and in research.

Course list for Nutrition, Food and Business

This option addresses the growing need for nutrition professionals to work with youth in structured organizations at the local, state, and national level such as WIC, Head Start, 4-H, cooperative extension, after school care, day care, environmental education, and programs for homeless children and families.

Course list for Community Nutrition

The Professional Youth Work certificate program addresses the growing need for educated professionals to work with youth in structured organizations. The program includes academic and experiential learning and draws upon educational pedagogy, sociology, and psychology to prepare students to address complex problems in youth, family, and community services.

For more information, please see

All students are encouraged to pursue independent research projects with faculty members.

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Nutritional Sciences Undergraduate Program at Rutgers SEBS


Gene therapy – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

October 28, 2015 By: painlord2k Category: human Genetic Engineering

Gene therapy is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid polymers into a patient’s cells as a drug to treat disease. Until September 1990, it had never been successfully done, and it is still an experimental and emerging medical technology that has seen new promise in the 2010s after extensive challenges and setbacks in the first two decades of its existence.

Between September 1990 and January 2014 some 2,000 clinical trials had been conducted or approved.[1][2]

It should be noted that not all medical procedures that introduce alterations to a patient’s genetic makeup can be considered gene therapy. Bone marrow transplantation, and organ transplants in general have been found to introduce foreign DNA into patients. [3] Gene therapy is defined by the precision of the procedure and the intention of direct therapeutic effects.

Gene therapy was conceptualized in 1972, by authors who urged caution before commencing human gene therapy studies.

The first attempt, albeit an unsuccessful one, at gene therapy was performed by Martin Cline on 10 July 1980.[4][5]

After extensive research on animals throughout the 1980s and a May 1989 bacterial gene tagging trial on humans, transitory (non-permanent) somatic (non-inheritable) gene therapy was first successfully demonstrated in a trial that started on September 14, 1990, when Ashi DeSilva was treated for ADA-SCID.[6]

The first somatic treatment that produced a permanent genetic change was performed in 1993. [7]

The first germ line gene therapy consisted of producing a genetically engineered embryo in October of 1996. The baby was born on July 21, 1997 and was produced by taking a donor’s egg with healthy mitochondria, removing its nuclear DNA and filling it with the nuclear DNA of the biological mother – a procedure known as cytoplasmic transfer.[8]

This procedure was referred to sensationally and somewhat inaccurately in the media as a “three parent baby”, though mtDNA is not the primary human genome and has little effect on an organism’s individual characteristics beyond powering their cells.

Gene therapy is a way to fix a genetic problem at its source. The polymers are either expressed as proteins, interfere with protein expression, or possibly correct genetic mutations.

The most common form uses DNA that encodes a functional, therapeutic gene to replace a mutated gene. The polymer molecule is packaged within a “vector”, which carries the molecule inside cells.

Early clinical failures led to dismissals of gene therapy. Clinical successes since 2006 regained researchers’ attention, although as of 2014, it was still largely an experimental technique.[9] These include treatment of retinal disease Leber’s congenital amaurosis,[10][11][12][13]X-linked SCID,[14] ADA-SCID,[15][16]adrenoleukodystrophy,[17]chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL),[18]acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL),[19]multiple myeloma,[20]haemophilia[16] and Parkinson’s disease.[21] Between 2013 and April 2014, US companies invested over $600 million in the field.[22]

The first commercial gene therapy, Gendicine, was approved in China in 2003 for the treatment of certain cancers.[23] In 2011 Neovasculgen was registered in Russia as the first-in-class gene-therapy drug for treatment of peripheral artery disease, including critical limb ischemia.[24] In 2012 Glybera, a treatment for a rare inherited disorder, became the first treatment to be approved for clinical use in either Europe or the United States after its endorsement by the European Commission.[9][25]

Following early advances in genetic engineering of bacteria, cells and small animals, scientists started considering how to apply it to medicine. Two main approaches were considered replacing or disrupting defective genes.[26] Scientists focused on diseases caused by single-gene defects, such as cystic fibrosis, haemophilia, muscular dystrophy, thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. Glybera treats one such disease, caused by a defect in lipoprotein lipase.[25]

DNA must be administered, reach the damaged cells, enter the cell and express/disrupt a protein.[27] Multiple delivery techniques have been explored. The initial approach incorporated DNA into an engineered virus to deliver the DNA into a chromosome.[28][29]Naked DNA approaches have also been explored, especially in the context of vaccine development.[30]

Generally, efforts focused on administering a gene that causes a needed protein to be expressed. More recently, increased understanding of nuclease function has led to more direct DNA editing, using techniques such as zinc finger nucleases and CRISPR. The vector incorporates genes into chromosomes. The expressed nucleases then “edit” the chromosome. As of 2014 these approaches involve removing cells from patients, editing a chromosome and returning the transformed cells to patients.[31]

Other technologies employ antisense, small interfering RNA and other DNA. To the extent that these technologies do not alter DNA, but instead directly interact with molecules such as RNA, they are not considered “gene therapy” per se.[citation needed]

Gene therapy may be classified into two types:

In somatic cell gene therapy (SCGT), the therapeutic genes are transferred into any of any cell other than a gamete, germ cell, gametocyte or undifferentiated stem cell. Any such modifications affect the individual patient only, and are not inherited by offspring. Somatic gene therapy represents mainstream basic and clinical research, in which therapeutic DNA (either integrated in the genome or as an external episome or plasmid) is used to treat disease.

Over 600 clinical trials utilizing SCGT are underway in the US. Most focus on severe genetic disorders, including immunodeficiencies, haemophilia, thalassaemia and cystic fibrosis. Such single gene disorders are good candidates for somatic cell therapy. The complete correction of a genetic disorder or the replacement of multiple genes is not yet possible. Only a few of the trials are in the advanced stages.[32]

In germline gene therapy (GGT), germ cells (sperm or eggs) are modified by the introduction of functional genes into their genomes. Modifying a germ cell causes all the organism’s cells to contain the modified gene. The change is therefore heritable and passed on to later generations. Australia, Canada, Germany, Israel, Switzerland and the Netherlands[33] prohibit GGT for application in human beings, for technical and ethical reasons, including insufficient knowledge about possible risks to future generations[33] and higher risks versus SCGT.[34] The US has no federal controls specifically addressing human genetic modification (beyond FDA regulations for therapies in general).[33][35][36][37]

The delivery of DNA into cells can be accomplished by multiple methods. The two major classes are recombinant viruses (sometimes called biological nanoparticles or viral vectors) and naked DNA or DNA complexes (non-viral methods).

In order to replicate, viruses introduce their genetic material into the host cell, tricking the host’s cellular machinery into using it as blueprints for viral proteins. Scientists exploit this by substituting a virus’s genetic material with therapeutic DNA. (The term ‘DNA’ may be an oversimplification, as some viruses contain RNA, and gene therapy could take this form as well.) A number of viruses have been used for human gene therapy, including retrovirus, adenovirus, lentivirus, herpes simplex, vaccinia and adeno-associated virus.[1] Like the genetic material (DNA or RNA) in viruses, therapeutic DNA can be designed to simply serve as a temporary blueprint that is degraded naturally or (at least theoretically) to enter the host’s genome, becoming a permanent part of the host’s DNA in infected cells.

Non-viral methods present certain advantages over viral methods, such as large scale production and low host immunogenicity. However, non-viral methods initially produced lower levels of transfection and gene expression, and thus lower therapeutic efficacy. Later technology remedied this deficiency[citation needed].

Methods for non-viral gene therapy include the injection of naked DNA, electroporation, the gene gun, sonoporation, magnetofection, the use of oligonucleotides, lipoplexes, dendrimers, and inorganic nanoparticles.

Some of the unsolved problems include:

Three patients’ deaths have been reported in gene therapy trials, putting the field under close scrutiny. The first was that of Jesse Gelsinger in 1999.[44] One X-SCID patient died of leukemia in 2003.[6] In 2007, a rheumatoid arthritis patient died from an infection; the subsequent investigation concluded that the death was not related to gene therapy.[45]

In 1972 Friedmann and Roblin authored a paper in Science titled “Gene therapy for human genetic disease?”[46] Rogers (1970) was cited for proposing that exogenous good DNA be used to replace the defective DNA in those who suffer from genetic defects.[47]

In 1984 a retrovirus vector system was designed that could efficiently insert foreign genes into mammalian chromosomes.[48]

The first approved gene therapy in the US took place on 14 September 1990, at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), under the direction of William French Anderson.[49] Four-year-old Ashanti DeSilva received treatment for a genetic defect that left her with ADA-SCID, a severe immune system deficiency. The effects were temporary, but successful.[50]

Cancer gene therapy was introduced in 1992/93.[51] The treatment of glioblastoma multiforme, the malignant brain tumor whose outcome is always fatal, was done using a vector expressing antisense IGF-I RNA (clinical trial approved by NIH n 1602, and FDA in 1994). The therapy proved to be effective due to the anti-tumor mechanism of IGF-I antisense, which is related to strong immune and apoptotic phenomena. For this reason this strategy can be considered also as immunotherapy.[52]

In 1992 Claudio Bordignon, working at the Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, performed the first gene therapy procedure using hematopoietic stem cells as vectors to deliver genes intended to correct hereditary diseases.[53] In 2002 this work led to the publication of the first successful gene therapy treatment for adenosine deaminase-deficiency (SCID). The success of a multi-center trial for treating children with SCID (severe combined immune deficiency or “bubble boy” disease) from 2000 and 2002, was questioned when two of the ten children treated at the trial’s Paris center developed a leukemia-like condition. Clinical trials were halted temporarily in 2002, but resumed after regulatory review of the protocol in the US, the United Kingdom, France, Italy and Germany.[54]

In 1993 Andrew Gobea was born with SCID following prenatal genetic screening. Blood was removed from his mother’s placenta and umbilical cord immediately after birth, to acquire stem cells. The allele that codes for adenosine deaminase (ADA) was obtained and inserted into a retrovirus. Retroviruses and stem cells were mixed, after which the viruses inserted the gene into the stem cell chromosomes. Stem cells containing the working ADA gene were injected into Andrew’s blood. Injections of the ADA enzyme were also given weekly. For four years T cells (white blood cells), produced by stem cells, made ADA enzymes using the ADA gene. After four years more treatment was needed.[citation needed]

Jesse Gelsinger’s death in 1999 impeded gene therapy research in the US.[55][56] As a result, the FDA suspended several clinical trials pending the reevaluation of ethical and procedural practices.[57]

The modified cancer gene therapy strategy of antisense IGF-I RNA (NIH n 1602)[58] using antisense / triple helix anti IGF-I approach was registered in 2002 by Wiley gene therapy clinical trial – n 635 and 636. The approach has shown promising results in the treatment of six different malignant tumors: glioblastoma, cancers of liver, colon, prostate, uterus and ovary (Collaborative NATO Science Programme on Gene Therapy USA, France, Poland n LST 980517 conducted by J. Trojan) (Trojan et al., 2012). This antigene antisense/triple helix therapy has proven to be efficient, due to the mechanism stopping simultaneously IGF-I expression on translation and transcription levels, strengthening anti-tumor immune and apoptotic phenomenons (Trojan et al., 2013).[59]

Sickle-cell disease can be treated in mice.[60] The mice which have essentially the same defect that causes human cases used a viral vector to induce production of fetal hemoglobin (HbF), which normally ceases to be produced shortly after birth. In humans, the use of hydroxyurea to stimulate the production of HbF temporarily alleviates sickle cell symptoms. The researchers demonstrated this treatment to be a more permanent means to increase therapeutic HbF production.[61]

A new gene therapy approach repaired errors in messenger RNA derived from defective genes. This technique has the potential to treat thalassaemia, cystic fibrosis and some cancers.[62]

Researchers created liposomes 25 nanometers across that can carry therapeutic DNA through pores in the nuclear membrane.[63]

In 2003 a research team inserted genes into the brain for the first time. They used liposomes coated in a polymer called polyethylene glycol, which, unlike viral vectors, are small enough to cross the bloodbrain barrier.[64]

Short pieces of double-stranded RNA (short, interfering RNAs or siRNAs) are used by cells to degrade RNA of a particular sequence. If a siRNA is designed to match the RNA copied from a faulty gene, then the abnormal protein product of that gene will not be produced.[65]

Gendicine is a cancer gene therapy that delivers the tumor suppressor gene p53 using an engineered adenovirus. In 2003, it was approved in China for the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.[23]

In March researchers announced the successful use of gene therapy to treat two adult patients for X-linked chronic granulomatous disease, a disease which affects myeloid cells and damages the immune system. The study is the first to show that gene therapy can treat the myeloid system.[66]

In May a team reported a way to prevent the immune system from rejecting a newly delivered gene.[67] Similar to organ transplantation, gene therapy has been plagued by this problem. The immune system normally recognizes the new gene as foreign and rejects the cells carrying it. The research utilized a newly uncovered network of genes regulated by molecules known as microRNAs. This natural function selectively obscured their therapeutic gene in immune system cells and protected it from discovery. Mice infected with the gene containing an immune-cell microRNA target sequence did not reject the gene.

In August scientists successfully treated metastatic melanoma in two patients using killer T cells genetically retargeted to attack the cancer cells.[68]

In November researchers reported on the use of VRX496, a gene-based immunotherapy for the treatment of HIV that uses a lentiviral vector to deliver an antisense gene against the HIV envelope. In a phase I clinical trial, five subjects with chronic HIV infection who had failed to respond to at least two antiretroviral regimens were treated. A single intravenous infusion of autologous CD4 T cells genetically modified with VRX496 was well tolerated. All patients had stable or decreased viral load; four of the five patients had stable or increased CD4 T cell counts. All five patients had stable or increased immune response to HIV antigens and other pathogens. This was the first evaluation of a lentiviral vector administered in a US human clinical trial.[69][70]

In May researchers announced the first gene therapy trial for inherited retinal disease. The first operation was carried out on a 23-year-old British male, Robert Johnson, in early 2007.[71]

Leber’s congenital amaurosis is an inherited blinding disease caused by mutations in the RPE65 gene. The results of a small clinical trial in children were published in April.[72] Delivery of recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying RPE65 yielded positive results. In May two more groups reported positive results in independent clinical trials using gene therapy to treat the condition. In all three clinical trials, patients recovered functional vision without apparent side-effects.[10][11][12][13]

In September researchers were able to give trichromatic vision to squirrel monkeys.[73] In November 2009, researchers halted a fatal genetic disorder called adrenoleukodystrophy in two children using a lentivirus vector to deliver a functioning version of ABCD1, the gene that is mutated in the disorder.[74]

An April paper reported that gene therapy addressed achromatopsia (color blindness) in dogs by targeting cone photoreceptors. Cone function and day vision were restored for at least 33 months in two young specimens. The therapy was less efficient for older dogs.[75]

In September it was announced that an 18-year-old male patient in France with beta-thalassemia major had been successfully treated.[76] Beta-thalassemia major is an inherited blood disease in which beta haemoglobin is missing and patients are dependent on regular lifelong blood transfusions.[77] The technique used a lentiviral vector to transduce the human -globin gene into purified blood and marrow cells obtained from the patient in June 2007.[78] The patient’s haemoglobin levels were stable at 9 to 10 g/dL. About a third of the hemoglobin contained the form introduced by the viral vector and blood transfusions were not needed.[78][79] Further clinical trials were planned.[80]Bone marrow transplants are the only cure for thalassemia, but 75% of patients do not find a matching donor.[79]

In 2007 and 2008, a man was cured of HIV by repeated Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (see also Allogeneic stem cell transplantation, Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, Allotransplantation) with double-delta-32 mutation which disables the CCR5 receptor. This cure was accepted by the medical community in 2011.[81] It required complete ablation of existing bone marrow, which is very debilitating.

In August two of three subjects of a pilot study were confirmed to have been cured from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The therapy used genetically modified T cells to attack cells that expressed the CD19 protein to fight the disease.[18] In 2013, the researchers announced that 26 of 59 patients had achieved complete remission and the original patient had remained tumor-free.[82]

Human HGF plasmid DNA therapy of cardiomyocytes is being examined as a potential treatment for coronary artery disease as well as treatment for the damage that occurs to the heart after myocardial infarction.[83][84]

n 2011 Neovasculgen was registered in Russia as the first-in-class gene-therapy drug for treatment of peripheral artery disease, including critical limb ischemia.[24] Neovasculogen is a plasmid encoding the CMV promoter and the 165 amino acid form of VEGF.[85][86]

The FDA approved Phase 1 clinical trials on thalassemia major patients in the US for 10 participants in July.[87] The study was expected to continue until 2015.[88]

In July 2012, the European Medicines Agency recommended approval of a gene therapy treatment for the first time in either Europe or the United States. The treatment used Alipogene tiparvovec (Glybera) to compensate for lipoprotein lipase deficiency, which can cause severe pancreatitis.[89] The recommendation was endorsed by the European Commission in November 2012[9][25][90][91] and commercial rollout began in late 2014.[92]

In December 2012, it was reported that 10 of 13 patients with multiple myeloma were in remission “or very close to it” three months after being injected with a treatment involving genetically engineered T cells to target proteins NY-ESO-1 and LAGE-1, which exist only on cancerous myeloma cells.[20]

In March researchers reported that three of five subjects who had acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) had been in remission for five months to two years after being treated with genetically modified T cells which attacked cells with CD19 genes on their surface, i.e. all B-cells, cancerous or not. The researchers believed that the patients’ immune systems would make normal T-cells and B-cells after a couple of months. They were also given bone marrow. One patient relapsed and died and one died of a blood clot unrelated to the disease.[19]

Following encouraging Phase 1 trials, in April, researchers announced they were starting Phase 2 clinical trials (called CUPID2 and SERCA-LVAD) on 250 patients[93] at several hospitals to combat heart disease. The therapy was designed to increase the levels of SERCA2a protein in heart muscles, improving muscle function.[94] The FDA granted this a Breakthrough Therapy Designation to accelerate the trial and approval process.[95]

In July researchers reported promising results for six children with two severe hereditary diseases had been treated with a partially deactivated lentivirus to replace a faulty gene and after 732 months. Three of the children had metachromatic leukodystrophy, which causes children to lose cognitive and motor skills.[96] The other children had Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, which leaves them to open to infection, autoimmune diseases and cancer.[97] Follow up trials with gene therapy on another six children with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome were also reported as promising.[98][99]

In October researchers reported that two children born with adenosine deaminase severe combined immunodeficiency disease (ADA-SCID) had been treated with genetically engineered stem cells 18 months previously and that their immune systems were showing signs of full recovery. Another three children were making progress.[16] In 2014 a further 18 children with ADA-SCID were cured by gene therapy.[100] ADA-SCID children have no functioning immune system and are sometimes known as “bubble children.”[16]

Also in October researchers reported that they had treated six haemophilia sufferers in early 2011 using an adeno-associated virus. Over two years later all six were producing clotting factor.[16][101]

Data from three trials on Topical cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene therapy were reported to not support its clinical use as a mist inhaled into the lungs to treat cystic fibrosis patients with lung infections.[102]

In January researchers reported that six choroideremia patients had been treated with adeno-associated virus with a copy of REP1. Over a six-month to two-year period all had improved their sight. Choroideremia is an inherited genetic eye disease with no approved treatment, leading to loss of sight.[103][104]

In March researchers reported that 12 HIV patients had been treated since 2009 in a trial with a genetically engineered virus with a rare mutation (CCR5 deficiency) known to protect against HIV with promising results.[105][106]

Clinical trials of gene therapy for sickle cell disease were started in 2014[107][108] although one review failed to find any such trials.[109]

In February LentiGlobin BB305, a gene therapy treatment undergoing clinical trials for treatment of beta thalassemia gained FDA “breakthrough” status after several patients were able to forgo the frequent blood transfusions usually required to treat the disease.[110]

In March researchers delivered a recombinant gene encoding a broadly neutralizing antibody into monkeys infected with simian HIV; the monkey’s cells produced the antibody, which cleared them of HIV. The technique is named immunoprophylaxis by gene transfer (IGT). Animal tests for antibodies to ebola, malaria, influenza and hepatitis are underway.[111][112]

In March scientists, including an inventor of CRISPR, urged a worldwide moratorium on germline gene therapy, writing scientists should avoid even attempting, in lax jurisdictions, germline genome modification for clinical application in humans until the full implications are discussed among scientific and governmental organizations.[113][114][115][116]

Also in 2015 Glybera was approved for the German market.[117]

Speculated uses for gene therapy include:

Athletes might adopt gene therapy technologies to improve their performance.[118]Gene doping is not known to occur, but multiple gene therapies may have such effects. Kayser et al. argue that gene doping could level the playing field if all athletes receive equal access. Critics claim that any therapeutic intervention for non-therapeutic/enhancement purposes compromises the ethical foundations of medicine and sports.[119]

Genetic engineering could be used to change physical appearance, metabolism, and even improve physical capabilities and mental faculties such as memory and intelligence. Ethical claims about germline engineering include beliefs that every fetus has a right to remain genetically unmodified, that parents hold such rights, and that every child has the right to be born free of preventable diseases.[120][121][122] For adults, genetic engineering could be seen as another enhancement technique to add to diet, exercise, education, cosmetics and plastic surgery.[123][124] Another theorist claims that moral concerns limit but do not prohibit germline engineering.[125]

Possible regulatory schemes include a complete ban, provision to everyone, or professional self-regulation. The American Medical Associations Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs stated that “genetic interventions to enhance traits should be considered permissible only in severely restricted situations: (1) clear and meaningful benefits to the fetus or child; (2) no trade-off with other characteristics or traits; and (3) equal access to the genetic technology, irrespective of income or other socioeconomic characteristics.”[126]

As early in the history of biotechnology as 1990, the scientific community was opposed to attempts to modify the human germline using these new tools,[127] and such cautions continued as technology progressed.[128] With the advent of new techniques like CRISPR, in March 2015 scientists urged a worldwide ban on clinical use of gene editing technologies to edit the human genome in a way that can be inherited.[113][114][115][116] In April 2015, researchers sparked controversy when they reported results of basic research to edit the DNA of non-viable human embryos using CRISPR.[129][130] Additionally, it has been suggested that 3D printing can be implemented in the rapid development of “bioresorbable scaffolds” capable of implanting stem cells.[131]

Regulations covering genetic modification are part of general guidelines about human-involved biomedical research.

The Helsinki Declaration (Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects) was amended by the World Medical Association’s General Assembly in 2008. This document provides principles physicians and researchers must consider when involving humans as research subjects. The Statement on Gene Therapy Research initiated by the Human Genome Organization (HUGO) in 2001 provides a legal baseline for all countries. HUGOs document emphasizes human freedom and adherence to human rights, and offers recommendations for somatic gene therapy, including the importance of recognizing public concerns about such research.[132]

No federal legislation lays out protocols or restrictions about human genetic engineering. This subject is governed by overlapping regulations from local and federal agencies, including the Department of Health and Human Services, the FDA and NIH’s Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee. Researchers seeking federal funds for an investigational new drug application, (commonly the case for somatic human genetic engineering), must obey international and federal guidelines for the protection of human subjects.[133]

NIH serves as the main gene therapy regulator for federally funded research. Privately funded research is advised to follow these regulations. NIH provides funding for research that develops or enhances genetic engineering techniques and to evaluate the ethics and quality in current research. The NIH maintains a mandatory registry of human genetic engineering research protocols that includes all federally funded projects.

An NIH advisory committee published a set of guidelines on gene manipulation.[134] The guidelines discuss lab safety as well as human test subjects and various experimental types that involve genetic changes. Several sections specifically pertain to human genetic engineering, including Section III-C-1. This section describes required review processes and other aspects when seeking approval to begin clinical research involving genetic transfer into a human patient.[135]

The FDA regulates the quality and safety of gene therapy products and supervises how these products are used clinically. Therapeutic alteration of the human genome falls under the same regulatory requirements as any other medical treatment. Research involving human subjects, such as clinical trials, must be reviewed and approved by the FDA and an Institutional Review Board.[136][137]

Gene therapy is the basis for the plotline of the film I Am Legend[138] and the TV show Will Gene Therapy Change the Human Race?[139]

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Home | Microbiology

October 28, 2015 By: painlord2k Category: Microbiology

Microbiology Faculty in MCB

David Benson — Molecular ecology and diversity of bacteria, plant symbionts, molecular adaptations of psychrophilic bacteria, microbial diversity and ecology in traditional cheeses.

Kenneth Campellone — Cellular microbiology,E.coliO157, host-pathogen interactions, toxin trafficking, type 3 effector proteins

Kathleen Feldman — Environmental microbiology, indoor air quality, fungal contamination of indoor environments, history of microbiology, microbiology education

Daniel Gage — Plant-microbe interactions, microbial genetics and physiology of infection in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis.

J. Peter Gogarten — Microbial evolution and phylogeny; comparative genome analyses; horizontal gene transfer; early evolution of life.

Joerg Graf — Animal-microbe interactions, digestive-tract symbiosis, pathogenic microbes, microbial evolution, high-throughput DNA sequencing, and the use of 16S rRNA genes in the classification of bacteria.

Jonathan Klassen — Microbial community ecology, especially using the fungus-growing ant symbiosis as a model system to study the evolution of microbial interaction networks; microbial natural product genomics, evolution and chemical ecology.

Kenneth Noll — Microbial genetics and biochemical physiology of hyperthermophilic bacteria, carbohydrate transport and the regulation of gene expression in hyperthermophiles.

Spencer Nyholm — Host-microbe interactions, squid / Vibrio fischeri symbiosis (colonization, interactions with the innate immune system), functional genomics of hydrothermal vent symbioses.

Thane Papke — Evolution and biogeography of extremophiles using population genetics, genomics and metagenomics to understand the impact of sex on species and speciation.

Mary Rumpho-Kennedy — Endosymbiotic association between algal (Vaucheria litorea) chloroplasts and a marine mollusc (Elysia chlorotica), resulting in photosynthetic sea slugs.

Carolyn Teschke — Bacteriophage assembly in vivo and in vitro; structural, biochemical, mutational analysis of bacteriophage capsids; macromolecular protein assembly

Steven Geary (Pathobiology) — 1. Mycoplasma genomics, microarray (expression) analysis, proteomics. 2. Pathogenic mechanisms of mycoplasmas. Mechanisms of attachment; cytadherence molecules and host cell receptors. Investigation of variably expressed cell surface proteins. 3. Vaccine Development. Immunologic and genetic means of analysis for the detection and speciation of mycoplasmas.

Pieter Visscher (Marine Sciences) — Biogeochemical processes in oceanic environments, the fate of methanethiol, dimethylsulfide, methylbromide and methylchloride in oceanic waters.

See the Center for Microbial Systems, Ecology and Evolution (CMSEE) for a listing of other microbiologists at UConn.

Susanne Beck von Bodman (Plant Science) — Molecular biology of host-microbe interactions. Quorum-sensing-mediated control of bacterial virulence factors. Plant genetic engineering for crop improvement and enhanced disease resistance.

Edward Leadbetter — Microbial ecology, physiology, and diversity; biochemistry and physiology of gliding motility in gliding bacteria, and of sulfur and sulfonate metabolism.

Thomas Terry — Microbiology education, developing new approaches and materials for microbiology educators, Web-based teaching.

Robert Vinopal — Microbial physiology and genetics applied to biotechnology and environmental microbiology, antimicrobial and biocidal agents, synthetic biodegradable polymers, biodegradation.

Antonio Romano — Microbial physiology, sugar transport and general microbiology.

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